By Wolfgang Jorisch
In line with the very winning German version and a seminar held through the German Engineers` organization (VDI) regularly for years now, this English variation has been completely up-to-date and revised to mirror the most recent advancements. It provides specifically the distinct points of vacuum know-how, utilized vacuum pump forms and vacuum engineering within the chemical, pharmaceutical and method application-segments. The textual content contains chapters devoted to most modern eu rules for working in damaging zones with vacuum platforms, equipment for strategy strain keep an eye on and law and leak detection.
all the authors paintings or did paintings at a variety of crucial German businesses considering vacuum expertise, and their services is disseminated the following for engineers operating in vacuum know-how, chemical technique layout, plant operation, and mechanical engineering.
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Additional resources for Vacuum Technology in the Chemical Industry
An astonishing solution! Further Reading GEA WIEGAND GmbH (1998) Ettlingen, Evaporation Technology ﬁrm’s brochure P03E 052004. HADWACO LTD OY (1995) Helsinki, Finnland, ﬁrm’s brochure. 1 Basics of Solids–Liquid Separation Technology During the synthesis of many chemical and pharmaceutical products, intermediate or ﬁnal, solids particles are suspended in liquids and have to be separated from these slurries at some stage. Typically mechanical separators like ﬁlter centrifuges, vacuum or pressure ﬁlters, decanters, ﬁlter presses or simple static thickeners are used to isolate the solids from the liquid.
Rant, Z. (1959) Verdampfen in Theorie und Praxis, Verlag von Theodor Steinkopﬀ, Dresden und Leipzig. H. (1965) Grundlagen der technischen Thermodynamik, Friedrich Vieweg & Sohn, Braunschweig. 221 11 Evaporators for Coarse Vacuum Gregor Klinke Summary For evaporation under coarse vacuum a variety of evaporator types is available. They represent a historical development, and each type has its speciﬁc ﬁeld of application. Some typical evaporator types are described here. 1 Introduction Working pressures between 80 and 800 mbar abs characterise the coarse vacuum.
The remaining tube length has a very good heat transfer. Hsch can therefore be used as quality index of the heat transfer. By throttling, the circulating ﬂow Hsch can be reduced and the overall heat transfer can be improved. 2 Natural circulation evaporator. reduced by this, and the evaporation rate will increase with every circulation. However, also the risk of coating is increasing. 3 makes the calculation of the natural circulation evaporator diﬃcult. The temperature diﬀerence over the tube length is very diﬀerent, and it is rather diﬃcult to determine an average value.
Vacuum Technology in the Chemical Industry by Wolfgang Jorisch