By Sena S. De Silva
De Silva has performed a good activity of reviewing the present nation of tropical marine aquaculture. I proceed to take advantage of this paintings as a easy reference.
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Extra resources for Tropical Mariculture
In open and exposed locations, seaweed farms are vulnerable to storms, as seen from the serious damage sometimes caused to Eucheuma farms by typhoons in Coastal Environmental Integrity 29 the Philippines. Their capacity to absorb nutrients also makes them vulnerable to water pollution, although mild hypernutrification (nutrient enrichment) of coastal waters can improve seaweed aquaculture production. For example, it was reported from China, that Laminariajaponica now requires less fertilization than during the 1960s, one factor possibly being the increase in coastal nutrient levels (China country report in FAO/NACA, 1995).
However, recent loss of mangrove to finfish ponds is minor, as relatively few new ponds are being constructed (Primavera, 1993; FAO/ NACA, 1995). Intensive marine cage culture impacts on water quality derive mainly from uneaten fish feed, fish faeces and excreta. All pubUshed studies indicate that the overall contributions of nutrients and organic matter are small compared with other coastal discharges, localized water quaHty changes and sediment accumulation can occur. In some cases, such 'self-pollution' can lead to cage farms exceeding the capacity of the environment to supply inputs (mainly dissolved 32 Tropical Mariculture oxygen) and assimilate wastes (two of the definitions for environmental sustainability), contributing to fish disease outbreaks and undermining sustainability.
This approach also puts disease control within the hands of the farmer, encouraging self-reliance, sustainabiUty and development of farm-level and appropriate solutions. , 1997). 9. 1. ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT OF MARICULTURE General approaches To maintain and ideally enhance coastal environmental integrity in areas developed for mariculture requires adoption of management strategies which enhance positive impacts of mariculture (social, economic and environmental impacts) and mitigate against environmental impacts associated with aquaculture farm siting and operation.
Tropical Mariculture by Sena S. De Silva