By Frank W. Putnam
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L § * 38 Frank W. Putnam The presence of carbohydrate is probably not a sufficient criterion to classify glycoproteins as a separate system, because almost all wellcharacterized plasma proteins are glycoproteins. The chief exceptions among the major plasma proteins are prealbumin, albumin, and the ret inol-binding protein, all of which lack carbohydrate. Some lesser con stituents such as the Cis and C8 components of complement and Creactive protein also have no reported carbohydrate. By weight the serum contains about 43% of glycoproteins and 57% of carbohydratefree proteins because of the abundance of albumin.
0005 mg/100 ml of serum and higher. IgE would never have been discovered were it not for the 50,000-fold increase in the serum of a very few patients with multiple myeloma. Progress in knowledge about lesser known plasma proteins is most likely to come from aberrations in disease, especially in cases of renal damage where there is greatly increased excretion of the protein in the urine. Heavy chain disease, Bence Jones proteinuria, and lysozymuria are cases in point. Urine from patients with tubular proteinuria has been the source for the isolation of ^-microglobulin (Berggard and Beam, 1968) and the retinol-binding protein (Peterson and Berggard, 1971) and nephrotic urine a source for haptoglobin type 1-1.
Indeed, the plasma proteins, particularly serum albumin, were among the first proteins to be made available commercially, owing to the large-scale fractionation pro cedures introduced during World War II to fill military needs for plasma protein derivatives. As a result, literally thousands of papers have been written about serum albumin alone: its physiological importance and clinical uses, its physical properties as a test material for new methods, its interactions with myriad substances both natural and synthetic, its uses in culture media, as an antigen and a carrier of antigens, and as a vehicle for changing physical properties or complexing with other sub stances such as nucleic acids.
The Plasma Proteins. Structure, Function, and Genetic Control by Frank W. Putnam