By Street, Herbert Edward.; Öpik, Helgi; Willis, Arthur John; Rolfe, Stephen A
summary: 4th ed
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Extra info for The physiology of flowering plants
Thus the proportion of incident light energy utilized for photosynthesis in the field is much lower than the 22–35% efficiency of energy conversion calculated in the preceding section. Under the best field conditions, the maximum gross photosynthesis may achieve a utilization of the order of 10% of the incident PAR. The efficiency becomes much lower if averaged over an extended timescale including unfavourable seasons and periods of dormancy. Water stress, limiting availability of CO2, and disease can further decrease the efficiency.
Fructose-6-phosphate may come from the hydrolysis of fructans or sucrose, or from the PPP (see below). Triose sugar phosphates are transported out of chloroplasts in the light and may also be derived from the PPP. Starch hydrolysis by the starch phosphorylase enzyme produces glucose-1-phosphate, which is easily isomerized to glucose6-phosphate. When such phosphorylated sugars enter glycolysis, one or both of the priming reactions with ATP is/are bypassed and the ATP gain is correspondingly greater.
Because the stomatal and cuticular resistances act in parallel rather than in series, the mathematical relationship between them is 1 1 1 ¼ þ RðsþcÞ Rs Rc (2:3) But since values of Rc are 500–1000 times higher than values of Rs, 1/Rc is negligible compared with 1/Rs and is consequently often omitted in calculations. The boundary layer, stomatal and mesophyll resistances all act in series and consequently can be added up to make R. 2 : P¼ ÁCO2 Ra þ Rs þ Rm (2:4) Usually there is sufficient air movement to keep Ra low relative to Rs and Rm, and variation in wind speed, once above a minimum, does not have much effect on CO2 uptake.
The physiology of flowering plants by Street, Herbert Edward.; Öpik, Helgi; Willis, Arthur John; Rolfe, Stephen A