By Stephen Gaukroger
Why did technological know-how emerge within the West and the way did medical values turn out to be considered as the yardstick for all other kinds of information? Stephen Gaukroger indicates simply how bitterly the cognitive and cultural status of technology was once contested in its early improvement. Rejecting the conventional photograph of secularization, he argues that technological know-how within the 17th century emerged now not towards faith yet relatively used to be in lots of respects pushed by way of it. in addition, technology didn't current a unified photo of nature yet was once an risky box of alternative, frequently in the neighborhood winning yet simply as usually incompatible, programmes. To complicate concerns, a lot relied on makes an attempt to reshape the personality of the traditional thinker, and exact new notions of objectivity and impartiality have been imported into common philosophy, altering its personality significantly through redefining the characteristics of its practitioners.
The West's experience of itself, its relation to its previous, and its experience of its destiny, were profoundly altered because the 17th century, as cognitive values usually have steadily grow to be formed round medical ones. technology has now not simply introduced a brand new set of such values to the duty of realizing the area and our position in it, yet quite has thoroughly remodeled the duty, redefining the ambitions of enquiry. This virtue of the advance of a systematic tradition within the West marks it out from different scientifically effective cultures. within the Emergence of a systematic tradition, Stephen Gaukroger deals a close and accomplished account of the formative phases of this development--and one that demanding situations the obtained knowledge that technological know-how used to be noticeable to be self-evidently the proper route to wisdom and that some great benefits of technology have been instantly noticeable to the disinterested observer.
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Additional resources for The Emergence of a Scientific Culture Science and the Shaping of Modernity, 1210-1685
See Ursula Henriques, Religious Toleration in England, 1787–1833 (London, 1961) and V. Kiernan, ‘Evangelicalism and the French Revolution’, Past and Present 1 (1952), 44–56. ⁵⁹ Patrick Colquhoun, A Treatise on Indigence (London, 1806), 148–9. ⁶⁰ See D. S. L. Cardwell, The Organisation of Science in England (London, 1972), 38. ⁶¹ Turner, ‘The Victorian Crisis’, 12–13. The most famous nineteenth-century works in this genre are William Paley, Natural Theology: or, Evidences of the Existence and Attributes of the Deity, collected from the Appearances of Nature (London, 1802) and The Bridgewater Treatises, on the Power, Wisdom, and Goodness of God as Manifested in the Creation, which appeared between 1834 and 1837.
This twofold process of securing autonomy from manifestly inappropriate considerations that are independent of physical evidence, and the establishment of an appropriate and viable method of producing reliable results, then opens up the way for a consolidation of scientiﬁc results which marks the scientiﬁc enterprise out from other forms of enquiry. This gives us another feature of the Enlightenment Interpretation: that it is not just its remarkable consolidation of results, but the very fact that it is capable of such consolidation, that marks modern scientiﬁc practice out from other enterprises and sets new standards of cognitive success by which disciplines that purport to make advances in our knowledge must be judged.
Science and Modernity 29 less successful in dictating the range of possible solutions. This left scope for science, which had played a crucial role in the debates against atheism and materialism, to be seen as something that might meet these new moral, spiritual, and intellectual demands. It is worth noting here that in his A Survey of the Wisdom of God in the Creation (1763), John Wesley, the writer to whom the evangelical movement owed most, had both pursued and recommended the study of nature on the grounds that it inspired awe and humility in the face of the marvellous organization in the created order.
The Emergence of a Scientific Culture Science and the Shaping of Modernity, 1210-1685 by Stephen Gaukroger