By Frank J. Chaloupka, Michael Grossman, Warren K. Bickel, Henry Saffer
Traditional knowledge as soon as held that the call for for addictive components like cigarettes, alcohol, and medicine was once in contrast to that for the other monetary strong and, accordingly, unresponsive to standard industry forces. lately, even though, researchers from disparate fields, economics and behavioral psychology, have stumbled on that raises within the total expense of an addictive substance can considerably lessen either the variety of clients and the quantities these clients eat. alterations within the "full fee" of addictive substances—including financial price, time outlay, attempt to procure, and capability consequences for unlawful use—yield marked adaptations in behavioral results and demand.The fiscal research of Substance Use and Abuse brings those precise fields of analysis jointly and provides for the 1st time an built-in review in their facts and effects. exact and cutting edge, this multidisciplinary quantity will function an incredible source within the present debates touching on alcohol and drug use and abuse and the affects of legalizing illicit medicinal drugs.
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Additional resources for The Economic Analysis of Substance Use and Abuse: An Integration of Econometric and Behavioral Economic Research (National Bureau of Economic Research Conference Report)
2 Estimates of Effects of Tax Rates and Specific Smoking Restrictions on Current Use of Cigarettes or Snuff (Sept. 1992, Jan. 020* aEndogenous variable in columns (2) and (4). *Statistically significant at the 1 percent level. 24 Robert L. Ohsfeldt, Raymond G. Boyle, and Eli I. 10 percent (col. 4). In terms of cross-tax effects, as in Ohsfeldt et al. (1997), higher cigarette tax rates are associated with a higher probability of snuff use. This is consistent with the substitution of snuff for cigarettes when the price of cigarettes increases relative to the price of snuff.
Self-reported snuff use among females is too rare to be analyzed effectively, even in the large CPS sample. 22 Robert L. Ohsfeldt, Raymond G. Boyle, and Eli I. 1 Logit Estimates of Effects of Tax Rates and Smoking Restriction Index on Current Use of Cigarettes or Snuff (Sept. 1992, Jan. 018* Cigarettes (Exogenous) Variables Cigarette taxa Snuff tax Regulation indexa Family income Occupation Farm/forestry Management Sales Service Age 16-19 Age 20-24 Age 65 or over White Hispanic Black non-Hispanic Black Hispanic High school graduate College graduate Employed Student Never married Divorced/widowed Married with no spouse present Child age ~ 5 in household Child age 6-17 in household High school graduates (%) Per capita income Population below poverty level (%) Unemployment rate Fundamentalists (%) No active religion (%) (4) aEndogenous variable in columns (2) and (4).
1997) confirm systematic underreporting by proxy respondents relative to respondents. However, the proxy response bias was essentially uncorrelated with the excise tax variables. Thus, the estimated excise tax coefficients were not substantially affected by proxy response bias, at least in the 1985 CPS data. The tobacco tax rate data used are from the Tobacco Institute (1992, 1993). An "average" excise tax rate for each MSA is calculated as the populationweighted average of the sum of the state excise tax and the local excise tax (if any), where the weights are each local government's share of the MSA population within a single state.
The Economic Analysis of Substance Use and Abuse: An Integration of Econometric and Behavioral Economic Research (National Bureau of Economic Research Conference Report) by Frank J. Chaloupka, Michael Grossman, Warren K. Bickel, Henry Saffer