By P. Peebles

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**Extra info for The Cosmological Constant and Dark Energy**

**Example text**

59) is a good fit for constant Λ. 79 Perlmutter et al. 80 5. Galaxy counts Counts of galaxies — or of other objects whose number density as a function of redshift may be modeled — probe the volume element (dV /dz)dzδΩ defined by a solid angle δΩ in the sky and a redshift interval dz. The volume is fixed by the angular size distance (Eq. [69]), which determines the area subtended by the solid angle, in combination with the redshift-time relation (Eq. [64]), which fixes the radial distance belonging to the redshift interval.

1 ∼ ΩM0 ∼ 1. The measured spectrum98 peaks at δTl ∼ 80 µK at l ∼ 200, thus requiring small space curvature in the CDM model. This is the first of Efstathiou’s constraints. Because of the geometric degeneracy this measurement does not yet seriously constrain ΩM0 if ΩK0 = 0. < 30, where pressure The second constraint comes from the spectrum of temperature fluctuations on large scales, l ∼ gradient forces never were very important. Under the scale-invariant initial conditions discussed in Sec. C the Einstein-de Sitter model predicts δTl is nearly independent of l on large scales.

We should pause to admire the unification of the theory and measurements of stellar evolution in our galaxy, which yield the estimate of t0 , and the measurements of the extragalactic distance scale, which yield H0 , in the product in Eq. (68) that agrees with the relativistic cosmology with dimensionless parameters in the range now under discussion. As we indicated in Sec. III, there is a long history of discussion of the expansion time as a constraint on cosmological models. The measurements now are tantalizingly close to a check of consistency with the values of ΩM0 and ΩΛ0 indicated by other cosmological tests.

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