New PDF release: The Ancient Art of Bonsai

By E. Chute

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1) or insects (Sect. 2) (Bowyer et al. 2003). Fungi and insects can rot or decay timber in service, or even the stem wood in the tree when it is still alive. Because of its resistance to rot and decay, heartwood may be much more durable in service than sapwood (Hillis 1984); the durability of both varies widely between species. The blockage of the cells in heartwood may make it more difficult to dry than sapwood. It may also make heartwood more difficult to penetrate with liquids, such as the anti-fungal or insecticide chemicals with which round wood products, such as posts, are often treated to preserve them when in use (Bowyer et al 2003).

For example, one of the highest values of mean annual increment reported for plantations in the scientific literature is a value of about 100 m3/ha/year, to 3 years of age, for the stem wood volume of a small experimental plantation of swamp gum (E. ovata) growing in New Zealand (Sims et al. 1999). This is a growth rate far Growth Rates and Wood Quality 32 ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ 60 40 3 MAI (m /ha/yr) 50 30 20 10 0 0 5 10 15 Age (year) 20 25 30 Fig.

Lastly, appropriate silvicultural practices must have been applied at the site to ensure the trees can avail themselves of all the resources available at the site. Few sites anywhere in the world have all these desirable characteristics and so most plantations can be expected to have growth rates somewhat below the world maxima. 3 Wood Quality World markets for industrial wood (Sect. 1) are becoming increasingly discriminating of the quality of the wood that is sold to them. The principal industrial products produced from wood are (Bowyer et al.

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The Ancient Art of Bonsai by E. Chute

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