By James Miller, Jane C. Miller
This renowned textbook supplies a transparent account of the rules of the most statistical tools utilized in glossy analytical laboratories. Such tools underpin prime quality analyses in components reminiscent of the security of meals, water and drugs, environmental tracking, and chemical production. The remedy all through emphasises the underlying statistical rules, and no precise wisdom of arithmetic is needed. there are lots of labored examples, together with using Microsoft Excel and Minitab, and a good number of pupil routines, lots of them in accordance with examples from the analytical literature.
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Extra resources for Statistics and Chemometrics for Analytical Chemistry (6th Edition)
11) these quantities should not be rounded off too much or a needless loss of precision will result. A good rule is to keep one digit beyond the last significant figure for each individual quantity, and leave further rounding until the final result is reached. The same advice applies when 30 2: Statistics of repeated measurements the mean and standard deviation are used to apply a statistical test such as the F- and t-tests (see Chapter 3): un-rounded values of x and s should be used in the calculations.
This gives the results (to two significant figures) of 50 replicate determinations of the levels of nitrate ion, a potentially harmful contaminant, in a particular water specimen. 2). 47 g ml-1 appears three times, and so on. 0165 μg ml-1 (both values being given to three significant figures). The distribution of the results can most easily be appreciated by drawing a histogram as in Fig. 1. This shows that the distribution of the measurements is roughly symmetrical about the mean, with the measurements clustered towards the centre.
These important topics are considered in more detail in Chapter 7. 7 Calculators and computers in statistical calculations The rapid growth of chemometrics – the application of mathematical methods to the solution of chemical problems of all types – is due to the ease with which large quantities of data can be handled, and advanced calculations done, with calculators and computers. These devices are available to the analytical chemist at several levels of complexity and cost. Handheld calculators are extremely cheap, very reliable and capable of performing many of the routine statistical calculations described in this book with a minimal number of keystrokes.
Statistics and Chemometrics for Analytical Chemistry (6th Edition) by James Miller, Jane C. Miller