By J. Shaw (Auth.)
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Additional resources for Reactor Operation
7 hr 9·2 hr ò -^2xl0*yr Ba-135 (Stable) On account of the time constants associated with production and decay of the xenon-135 isotope the effect of xenon on reactor operation is restricted to periods of several hours. The total reactivity change produced as a result of the build up of xenon to an equilibrium concentration depends on the level of the neutron flux during operation. The effect is small for fluxes less than 1012 n/cm2 sec, at 1012 the reactivity effect is approximately -0-7%, at 1013 is -2-0 to -3-0% and a limiting value of —4-8% is reached at fluxes in excess of 1015 n/cm2 sec.
Thus if the central flux is 20 n/cm 2 sec the flux at the detectors for a thermal column ratio of 2000 will be 10 ~2 n/cm 2 sec which is too low for adequate measurement. The spontaneous fission rate for uranium-235 is approxi mately a factor of 104 less than uranium-238 and therefore the flux at the centre of a reactor fuelled with highly enriched uranium is very small. Thus, although these reactors are small er in physical size enabling instruments to be positioned near to the core, the flux level is still too low for measurement.
3. Loss of power to the measuring instruments. 4. Loss of power to the safety channel instruments. 5. High radiation levels at certain locations. 6. Loss of an interlock condition. 7. Unusual reactor temperatures. 8. Coolant flow or temperature faults. 9. High counts on burst fuel element detection equipment. 10. Heat exchanger faults. 11. Faults associated with other items of plant which effect reactor conditions. 4 lists the warnings and shut-down conditions associated with a typical gas-cooled, graphite-moderated natural uranium reactor.
Reactor Operation by J. Shaw (Auth.)