By Abdulaziz H. Abuzinada, Hans-Jörg Barth, Friedhelm Krupp, Benno Böer, Thabit Zahran Al Abdessalaam
The Gulf is endowed with helpful typical assets and an exceptional biodiversity of plant and animal species. Sustainable residing within the Gulf sector depends upon such assets supplied via the ocean. huge components of its coastal sector together with very important marine habitats are presently threatened through expanding pressure at the Gulf atmosphere as a result of an speeded up coastal improvement over the past few years. many of the world’s biggest landfill and dredging tasks are present in the coastal components, and the world’s major crude oil transport routes go through the open sea. numerous human affects are contributing to marine toxins, resembling oil, sediments, waste, thermal, chemical, and different kinds of pollution.
This quantity studies current assets and degrees of pollutants within the Gulf, assesses their explanations and results on biota and ecosystems, and identifies gaps and stumbling blocks at the moment fighting an efficient built-in transboundary administration of the marine and coastal assets. It highlights preventive and remedial measures lowering degrees of pollutants and mitigating hostile affects.
The publication is a vital resource of knowledge for environmental managers, researchers, directors, and determination makers, contributing in the direction of a far better environmental administration.
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Extra info for Protecting the Gulf’s Marine Ecosystems from Pollution
Major coastal ecosystem types The main coastal ecosystem types are differentiated on the dominant substrate and vegetation type. The coastal wetlands include salt marshes, mangroves, sabkha, sandy, and rocky beaches. Generally the muddy shores at the Gulf coast have a highly abundant intertidal community. 2 mm in size reach up to 600,000 individuals per square metre, substantially greater than values previously reported for various areas elsewhere in the world (Cole and McCain 1989). Species diversity though is within the average of the range of world values.
The mangrove roots are only able to survive by means of pneumatophores which project above the ground and conduct oxygen to the buried portions of the root system. The species assemblages supported by mangroves are not very different from those of intertidal mudflats in salt marsh ecosystems. Nevertheless, they are considered as a separate ecosystem type, since the mangrove trees form a biotope that is very distinctive with special local cultural and ecological value (Fig. 11). Figure 11. Schematic profile of a mangrove habitat at the Gulf coast.
However, the overall influence of salinity is too low to justify considering the stands as true halophytic vegetation. As indicated by Halwagy and Halwagy (1977), these stands often represent the transition from halophytic to non-halophytic plant communities. g. g. Cymbopogon commutatus). Babikir and Kürschner (1992) provide a brief description of relatively intact Zygophyllum qatarense vegetation from Al-Dakirah in north-eastern Qatar. The following account of the Zygophyllum qatarense community in north-eastern Qatar is based on fieldwork by the senior author of this contribution (previously unpublished) from Ra's Laffan Industrial City in the vicinity of Al-Dakirah.
Protecting the Gulf’s Marine Ecosystems from Pollution by Abdulaziz H. Abuzinada, Hans-Jörg Barth, Friedhelm Krupp, Benno Böer, Thabit Zahran Al Abdessalaam