By Koen Venema, Ana Paula do Carmo
Composed of approximately one thousand types of microorganisms - a few priceless, others now not - the human intestine microbiota performs a major position in future health and illness. this can be as a result presence of probiotic or important microbes, or as a result of the feeding of prebiotics that stimulate the endogenous helpful microbes (these advertise well-being via stimulating the immune approach, bettering the digestion and absorption of food, and inhibiting the expansion of pathogens). The awesome healthiness merits of probiotic organisms have triggered a lot advertisement curiosity, which in flip has resulted in a plethora of analysis tasks during this zone. those variety from reports to clarify the efficacy of a number of the healthiness advantages to analyses of the diet-microbe interplay as a method of modulating the intestine microbiota composition. study during this region is at a really intriguing degree. With state of the art commentaries on all elements of probiotics and prebiotics study, this ebook offers an authoritative and well timed evaluation of the sphere. Written by way of major foreign researchers, every one bankruptcy offers severe perception to a selected subject, studies present study, discusses destiny course, and stimulates dialogue. subject matters variety from the various microorganisms used as probiotics (lactobacilli, bifidobacteria, yeast, etc.), and the thoughts and methods used (metagenomics, etc.), to the stories of the scientific and clinical points. the availability of in depth reference sections absolutely encourages readers to pursue every one topic in higher element. *** Librarians: e-book to be had on ProQuest and EBSCO [Subject: Microbiology, existence technological know-how]
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Additional resources for Probiotics and Prebiotics: Current Research and Future Trends
However, it is unlikely that SCFA at physiological levels promote epithelial cell proliferation beyond the normal range as the maximal crypt cell production rate was still within the physiological range after stimulation with extremely high doses of butyrate. Frankel et al. (1994) showed that direct colonic infusion of SCFA in rats increased colonic mucosal DNA and crypt depth. In addition, caecal infusion of SCFAs into innervated rats also increased jejunal DNA, villous height, surface area, crypt depth, and gastrin whereas these effects were not observed in rats that underwent caecal denervation.
Trophic function Another role of SCFA on colonic physiology is their trophic effect on the intestinal epithelium. It had been shown that only in the presence of gut bacteria, readily fermentable dietary fibre stimulates epithelial cell proliferation in the intestine suggesting that end products of fermentation are responsible for this effect. In rats, administration of SCFA resulted in increased crypt cell production rates, which is a measure of epithelial cell proliferation (Sakata, 1987). Whereas acetate and butyrate were active at physiological concentrations, supraphysiological concentrations of propionate were required.
Nutr. 51, 178–194. , et al. (2003). The Orphan G protein-coupled receptors GPR41 and GPR43 are activated by propionate and other short chain carboxylic acids. J. Biol. Chem. 278, 11312–11319. , et al. (2013). Metagenomic analyses of alcohol induced pathogenic alterations in the intestinal microbiome and the effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG treatment. PLoS One 8, e53028. D. (1966). Gases produced by human intestinal microflora. Nature 212, 122–127. M. (2007). Dietary nondigestible carbohydrates promote L-cell differentiation in the proximal colon of rats.
Probiotics and Prebiotics: Current Research and Future Trends by Koen Venema, Ana Paula do Carmo