By Barbara L. Gartner
Stems, of varied sizes and styles, are excited by lots of the natural methods and interactions of vegetation, starting from help, shipping, and garage to improvement and defense. The stem itself is a crucially very important middleman: it hyperlinks above- and less than floor organs-connecting roots to leaves. a world crew of best researchers vividly illustrate that stems are greater than pipes, greater than uncomplicated connecting and aiding constructions; fairly stems are severe, anatomically particular buildings of huge variability. it truly is, to an unappreciated volume, this variability that underpins either the range and the good fortune of crops in myriad ecosystems. Plant Stems may be a invaluable source on form/function relationships for researchers and graduate-level scholars in ecology, evolutionary biology, body structure, improvement, genetics, agricultural sciences, and horticulture as they get to the bottom of the mechanisms and methods that permit organisms and ecosystems to operate. Key good points * Syntheses of structural, physiological, and ecological features of stems * a number of viewpoints on how stem constitution pertains to functionality * Highlights of significant parts of plant biology lengthy ignored
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Stems, of assorted sizes and styles, are curious about many of the natural methods and interactions of crops, starting from aid, shipping, and garage to improvement and safety. The stem itself is a crucially vital middleman: it hyperlinks above- and under floor organs-connecting roots to leaves.
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Extra resources for Plant Stems: Physiology and Functional Morphology
Fully expanded compound leaves were collected from six species, and annual twigs with attached foliage were collected from six species with simple leaves. Lever arms were measured, and the fresh and dry masses of individual leaves/ leaflets and intervening portions of rachises/twigs determined. Tissue construction costs (kJ g-l) of rachises and twigs were estimated using the technique of Williams et al. (1987, 1989). Tissue cost per unit length (kJ cm -1) of each segment of a twig or petiole was then plotted against the bending moment exerted on that segment, and the regression lines for simple and compound leaves compared; one pairwise comparison is shown in Fig.
5 m (Fig. 14); the cross-over point is about 1 m for sun-adapted herbs. The reason for the evolutionary ascendance of woody plants is simply that, even though their support tissue is more expensive than that of herbs of the same height, they build only a portion of their stem per year and do not discard previous increments to the support skeleton (Givnish, 1988). The greater shade tolerance of herbs and its ecological implications have already been discussed (see Section III,B,4). 2. Compound versus Simple Leaves Givnish (1978) analyzed the potential advantages and disadvantages of compound leaves in woody plants, and concluded that they should be favored (1) in gap-phase succession, and other situations in which height growth is at a premium, and (2) among deciduous species in seasonally arid environments.
However, vines require self-supporting hosts on which they climb. Gartner (1991b) showed that vinelike and shrubby forms of poison oak (Toxicodendron diversilobum) allocate similar amounts of energy to foliage vs stems, but that the vinelike form is able to produce much longer stems for the same investment; Niklas (personal communication) has compiled data suggesting a similar trend across species. Putz (1984a) reported that vine seedlings that were experimentally supplied with a trellis grew much taller than control seedlings.
Plant Stems: Physiology and Functional Morphology by Barbara L. Gartner