By Donald C. Rennels
Pipe Flow offers the data required to layout and examine the piping platforms had to aid a wide variety of business operations, distribution platforms, and tool crops. in the course of the booklet, the authors display tips on how to safely are expecting and deal with strain loss whereas operating with quite a few piping structures and piping components.
The e-book attracts jointly and reports the becoming physique of experimental and theoretical examine, together with very important loss coefficient information for a big variety of piping elements. Experimental attempt information and released formulation are tested, built-in and arranged into widely acceptable equations. the implications also are provided in hassle-free tables and diagrams.
Sample difficulties and their resolution are supplied in the course of the publication, demonstrating how center strategies are utilized in perform. additionally, references and additional analyzing sections permit the readers to discover the entire subject matters in larger depth.
With its transparent explanations, Pipe Flow is usually recommended as a textbook for engineering scholars and as a reference for pro engineers who have to layout, function, and troubleshoot piping structures. The e-book employs the English gravitational procedure in addition to the overseas approach (or SI).
Chapter 1 basics (pages 3–12):
Chapter 2 Conservation Equations (pages 13–21):
Chapter three Incompressible move (pages 23–30):
Chapter four Compressible stream (pages 31–47):
Chapter five community research (pages 49–60):
Chapter 6 brief research (pages 61–68):
Chapter 7 Uncertainty (pages 69–73):
Chapter eight floor Friction (pages 77–87):
Chapter nine Entrances (pages 89–99):
Chapter 10 Contractions (pages 101–112):
Chapter eleven Expansions (pages 113–129):
Chapter 12 Exits (pages 131–137):
Chapter thirteen Orifices (pages 139–155):
Chapter 14 circulation Meters (pages 157–161):
Chapter 15 Bends (pages 163–175):
Chapter sixteen Tees (pages 177–200):
Chapter 17 Pipe Joints (pages 201–204):
Chapter 18 Valves (pages 205–212):
Chapter 19 Threaded Fittings (pages 213–215):
Chapter 20 Cavitation (pages 219–224):
Chapter 21 Flow?Induced Vibration (pages 225–229):
Chapter 22 Temperature upward push (pages 231–233):
Chapter 23 movement to Run complete (pages 235–240):
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Extra info for Pipe Flow: A Practical and Comprehensive Guide
Experiments proved Borda to be correct for the turbulent ﬂow case. Note that the head loss in Borda’s equation is proportional to V12 / 2 g times a geometry-dependent constant. This arrangement has been found to be generally true in subsequent pressure loss work. If we denote the geometry-dependent constant as K, the general case of induced turbulence head loss may be written as: HL = K V2 . 7) K is known as the resistance coefﬁcient or loss coefﬁcient. As shown in Chapter 2, V 2/2g is the velocity head, so that K is the head loss measured in velocity heads.
The top line, variously called the Energy Line, Energy Grade Line, or Total Head Line (though “Total Useful Head Line” might be more appropriate), represents the sum of the elevation, pressure, and velocity heads. A pitot probe inserted in the ﬂow would cause a column of the ﬂowing ﬂuid to rise in a manometer to that line as shown. 5 there would be an appropriate rise or fall of the energy line representing the energy added to or subtracted from the ﬂow. The line below it represents the Piezometric Head Line or Hydraulic Grade Line.
V* is the “friction velocity,” V * = τ 0 / ρm , where τ0 is the wall shear stress and ρm is the mass density (in either the English gravitational system or SI). 607231 R 2 f . 7, the difference is scarcely discernible. 9765 f . 4. 038. 04, the error attendant to assuming a ﬂat velocity proﬁle is therefore usually negligible. Laminar ﬂow, however, is an exception. 333, a value which cannot be ignored. Other exceptions occur where the velocity proﬁle is badly distorted, such as at the efﬂux of a conical expander.
Pipe Flow: A Practical and Comprehensive Guide by Donald C. Rennels