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4. , 1998, 1999). 3) Since V (eg ) itself decreases monotonically from 3:0 eV for Ti2 O3 to 1:9 eV for Fe2 O3 and N (t2g ) increases from 9 for Ti2 O3 to 5 for Fe2 O3 , Ve systematically decreases from 6:9 eV for Ti2 O3 to 3:2 eV for Fe2 O3 . It is important to note that Ve is rather large in early TMCs so as to give in Eq. 2) ES ≈2Ve , because | − Udc |Ve in most cases. , 1997). Finally, an experimental comparison of the VB-XPS spectra of V2 O3 , VO2 and V2 O5 compounds is presented in Fig. 4.

Physics Reports 355 (2001) 1–72 51 of magnitude as pure titanium metal and their melting point, higher than 3000 K, enables to classify them within refractory metals (Toth, 1971; Storms, 1967). At room temperature these compounds are chemically very stable (for example TiN is a good solid solution but CoN is not because of clustering of Co) and present excellent corrosion resistance; thus they can be used as biocompatible layers on orthopaedic and dental implants. Lastly, their hardness, among the highest after diamond, has contributed to the industrial use of titanium carbides as coating for cutting tools and besides, has designate them, as well as titanium nitrides, as good candidates for applications needing high wear resistance (Ohring, 1992; Bunshah and Deshpandey, 1989).

1997) Bocquet et al. 0 Pollini (1999) Park et al. (1988) a Ue = U − : the e ective U can be reduced considerably from the bare U by an hybridization shift , since the states near the energy gap can have a large ligand p character. in VB-XPS have a distance from the main emission of ES ≈7:9 eV and ≈7:7 eV, respectively. 1) where Tt2g and Teg are the one-electron mixing matrix elements: Teg = eg |H |eg = V and Tt2g = t2g |H |t2g = 0:5 V. In the simple case, when the Hamiltonian is restricted to d n and d n+1 L conÿgurations, the main peak–satellite splitting ES in VB-XPS is given by Eq.

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