Download PDF by H. Welling (auth.), Riazuddin (eds.): Physics and Contemporary Needs: Volume 1

By H. Welling (auth.), Riazuddin (eds.)

ISBN-10: 1468424270

ISBN-13: 9781468424270

ISBN-10: 1468424297

ISBN-13: 9781468424294

Even during this age of data explosion, Seminars and Symposia have an significance in their personal, rather in international locations that are scientifically and geographically distant from energetic centres of studying. Our scientists endure this isolation very acutely; the Cow~ission recognises this challenge and has endeavoured to resolve it via company of conferences and meetings in Pakistan to which foreign experts in numerous fields are invited to percentage their event with colleagues in Pakistan. we discover that the private come upon and human contact nonetheless stay essentially the most powerful equipment of shifting and sharing medical wisdom. The overseas summer time university at Nathiagali held in August, 1976, additionally grew out of our have to converse with one another and to spot promising parts of improvement appropriate to the wishes of a constructing nation. within the implementation of this concept, the Pakis­ tan Atomic strength fee acquired help from the overseas Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste and from the Swedish Inter­ nationwide improvement Authority that's gratefully acknowledged.

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This is most easily done in a frequency doubling system (Figure 15) where we have only one laser resonator and we use this resonator twice. Considering a normal dye laser we need in a further arm a second beam waist, where the non-linear cyrstal is placed. Figure 15: Frequency doubling system Dye. The dye laser ,·ri thout frequency nClllhl i ng may have an output power P. If the output reflector is replaced by a reflector with 100% reflection and if we assume that the resonator has no losses except by the frequency doubling process, then the output power for the second harmonic equals the power P of the dye laser, which means that high output powers in the UV can be obtained in principle.

Arrathoon, Phys. Rev. , 20, 901 (1968) . 8. Siegman, J. Appl. , 40, 910 (1969). Freed, Phys. Rev. , 23, 277 (1969). - 9. Siegman, Phys. , A4, 373 (1971). 10. GUttner, Z. Physik, 253, 113 (1972). 11. Richter, Z. Physik, 242, 458 (1971). 12. Welling, to be published. Section 2 l. Pidgeou, Report on Progress in Physics, Vol. 38, March 1975. 2. Schmidt, Appl. Phys. , 1, 251 (1974). Tibulski and H. , 17, 18 (1976) . 3. 4. Welling, App. , 11, 97 (1976). 5. Shadin, Appl. , to be published Nov. 1976. Section 3 l.

In spite of exactly the same spot diameter the width of cutting for the QS-operation is larger than for the CS and continuous operation. 3 The haemostatic effect of the Nd-YAG-laser radiation The advantage of the laser compared with the scalpel is given 37 LASERS by the combination of the cutting with the stopping of the bleeding. Using the Nd-YAG-laser even strong vascularized tissue like liver tissue can be resected without any bleeding, see Figure 27. Figure 27. Liver lobe after operation Figure 27 shows a liver lobe immediately after an operation.

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Physics and Contemporary Needs: Volume 1 by H. Welling (auth.), Riazuddin (eds.)


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