Read e-book online Physics 2000 and Calculus 2000: modern college-level PDF

By Huggins E.R.

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11 seconds old. The temperature is still too high for protons and neutrons to combine to form nuclei. Int-28 An Overview of Physics Neutrinos escape at one second Positrons annihilated As we noted, neutrinos are special particles in that the only way they interact with matter is through the weak interaction. Neutrinos pass right through the earth with only the slightest chance of being stopped. But the early universe is so dense that the neutrinos interact readily with all the other particles. After about three minutes the positrons are gone and from then on the universe consists of photons, neutrinos, anti neutrinos and the few matter particles.

The period of the orbit of these stars is changing in exactly the way one would expect if the stars were radiating gravitational waves. If our wave-particle picture of the behavior of matter is correct, then the gravitational waves must have a particle nature like electromagnetic waves. Physicists call the gravitational particle the graviton. We think we know a lot about the graviton even though we have not yet seen one. The graviton should, like the photon, have no rest mass, travel at the speed of light, and have the same relationship between energy and wavelength.

In the quark model, all members of the proton family consist of three quarks. The proton and neutron, are made from the up and down quarks. The proton consists of two up and one down quark, while the neutron is made from one up and two down quarks. The weak interaction, which as we saw can change protons into neutrons, does so by changing one of the proton’s up quarks into a down quark. The π meson type of particles, which were thought to be Yukawa’s nuclear force particles, turned out instead to be quark-antiquark pairs.

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Physics 2000 and Calculus 2000: modern college-level calculus-based physics by Huggins E.R.


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