By J. E. Fisher, H. B. Gatland and P. Hammond (Auth.)
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Additional info for Operational Amplifiers, Oscillators and Digital Techniques. Electronics from Theory Into Practice
Thus Vo vin 1 ΦΚ1-1/Α), 1 + 1/A 238 ELECTRONICS FROM THEORY INTO PRACTICE using the binomial expansion approximation 1/(1 -hx) = (l - x ) if x<\. 22) The fractional error is 1/Λ and equals 1 0 5 (or 10~3 %). It is apparent that the voltage gain is much closer to unity than that of an emitter follower. Operational amplifier follower frequency response The variation of gain with frequency for a general-purpose operational amplifier takes the form shown in Fig. 23. When both voltage gain and frequency are plotted on the same logarithmic scale, the response is a straight line from the upper bandwidth limit, I0 6 I0 5 Γ"*^^ ~~I ^ν Open loop ^^characteristic I0 4 L(>op in σ σ> ^v α> ι ο 2 D § 10 , Voltage follower characteristic 1 10i I i I0 2 i I0 3 Frequency ' > i I0 4 i I0 5 ^ s X ι^ι I0 6 I07 1 (Hz) Fig.
20 drawn. Operation with constant current If the device is operated with the source resistor replaced by a current sink, the gate-source voltage, VGs, will remain constant for the range of input voltages. The broken line on Fig. 6 V. 6 236 ELECTRONICS FROM THEORY INTO PRACTICE v GS =oy< VGS=-0 2 V X VGS—0-4VX -Οβνχ^ RS=2KÜ,/ V V GS =-0-8V_x' |_ ^Constant current load, V G S =-0 6V VGS—l-OV^ XvGS-i2y >γν65»-ι·βνν Fig. 20. Transfer characteristic for the source followers of Figs. 21. Current sink A current sink of 2 mA can be formed using a FET with a source resistor Offsetting the gate-source voltage The source of Τλ in Fig.
49b. Integrator drift The amplifier bias current is supplied from the charge on the capacitor. This will cause the output voltage to change, even though there is no input signal. 1V/s. g. a FET input type. Another current component is that drawn by the input resistance and input resistor. In Fig. 50, the voltage vA is the offset voltage together with the voltage, v0/A, necessary to maintain the output. This, applied across RA and Ri in parallel, will draw a NEGATIVE FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS 265 c >c f Hl· IM Fig.
Operational Amplifiers, Oscillators and Digital Techniques. Electronics from Theory Into Practice by J. E. Fisher, H. B. Gatland and P. Hammond (Auth.)