By S. Stapf, Song-I Han
The way to use nuclear magnetic resonance imaging in chemical engineering.
Written by way of the the world over well-known most sensible specialists from academia and undefined, this primary publication devoted to the subject presents an summary of present tools and methods to resolve person difficulties in chemical engineering. Written in an easy and full of life demeanour and sponsored by way of a number of commercial examples, the ebook starts with a glance at and strategies, carrying on with directly to conceal porous fabrics, fluids and move of accelerating complexity from diverse fields of Chemical Engineering, earlier than completing off with a overview of reactors and reactions.
the outcome permits engineers, business and educational researchers and decision-makers to realize a close perception into the NMR toolbox, such that they could estimate the advantage of NMR imaging in regards to price potency and clinical effects.
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Additional info for NMR Imaging in Chemical Engineering
The transverse magnetization (also called coherence) is a sum of many contributions, originating from different spin positions inside a molecule as well as from different regions in space. , we assume a point of view that is rotating with the carrier frequency of the transmitting radio field about the z axis. Some partial magnetizations (they are also called isochromats) precess faster, others precess slower than the average. Eventually, their vectors add up to zero and no signal is detected in the receiver.
4). 7) already contains this possibility; however, in Eq. 8) The choice of gradient strength and duration can be optimized if the size of the object is known. From Eqs. 6) it becomes clear that a large gradient will 11 12 1 Introduction lead to an ambiguous assignment of positions if the maximum phase angle exceeds 2 ð. One must therefore make sure that the difference between phase shifts generated for spins at the extreme ends of the sample is smaller than 2 ð for each different value of the gradient.
The disadvantage of phase encoding is its inherent slowness. To generate a three-dimensional image with a satisfactory resolution of, say, 64 64 64 points, an equivalent number of 643 individual signals have to be acquired. Allowing for a repetition time of 1 s between acquisitions, this corresponds to an experimental time of three days! The repetition time depends on the relaxation parameters of the sample; for liquids, it is in the order of several seconds so that three-dimensional phase-encoded images become prohibitively slow to measure.
NMR Imaging in Chemical Engineering by S. Stapf, Song-I Han