Neurology Board Review: An Illustrated Study Guide - download pdf or read online

By Nima Mowzoon, Kelly D. Flemming

ISBN-10: 0849337917

ISBN-13: 9780849337918

Collect the information of examination takers and citizens with the one up to date one-stop illustrated assessment for the written section of the Neurology Board and in-service examinations. 

Valuable contributions by way of examination takers and citizens make this the most effective assets for examination guidance or glossy day by day resident training—here are only a number of advantages…

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Granule neuroblasts are precursors of cerebellar granule cells, which form the external granule cell layer 4. After the initial proliferation of granule cells in the external granule cell layer at birth, the precursor cells migrate through the molecular and Purkinje cell layers G. Migration of Progenitor Cells 1. Occurs soon after initial proliferation in the ventricular zone 2. Postmitotic cells migrate centrifugally from the ventricular zone to the cortical plate at the surface (except for centripetal migration of cells from the external granule cell layer of the cerebellum into the folia) 3.

Necrosis 1) Often precipitated by energy failure 2) Cell swelling (cytotoxic edema) and membrane rupture 3) Likely to produce inflammatory response b. Apoptosis 1) Normal developmental process of programmed cell death 2) Cellular and nuclear shrinkage (DNA fragmentation) but no membrane rupture 3) Does not produce inflammation 4) Involves activation of apoptotic receptors, activation of caspases, alteration of interaction and balance between proapoptotic and antiapoptotic factors, mitochondrial failure, and oxidative stress 5) Mitochondrial failure: increased intramitochondrial calcium, release of cytochrome c and other apoptotic factors into the cytosol 6) Cytochrome c activates Procaspase 9 via interaction with apoptosis activating factor-1 (Apaf-1) 7) Activation of caspase 9 is inhibited by inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs), which are in turn inhibited by mitochondrial-derived Smac (second mitochondrial activator of caspases) 8) Caspases eventually act to mediate DNA fragmentation and lipid peroxidation c.

4) Actin-binding proteins determine structural arrangement of actin microfilaments and cross-linking and interactions with cell membrane and extracellular matrix a) Spectrin: acts to cross-link actin oligomers and forms complex with ankyrin, actin, and other cytoskeletal proteins, forming stable submembranous cytoskeletal complex, stabilizing cell membranes b) Ankyrin c) Fibrin: may be important in formation of filopodia in growth cones d) Profilin: promotes actin polymerization e) Gelsolin: cytoplasmic, calcium-regulated, actinmodulating protein that binds to and severs existing actin filaments and can cap F-actin; mutations of gelsolin lead to familial amyloidosis type IV, Finnish type b.

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Neurology Board Review: An Illustrated Study Guide by Nima Mowzoon, Kelly D. Flemming

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