Download e-book for kindle: Morphological Evolution, Adaptations, Homoplasies, by Rui Diogo

By Rui Diogo

ISBN-10: 1578082919

ISBN-13: 9781578082919

ISBN-10: 1578086620

ISBN-13: 9781578086627

The key target of this paintings is, to assist make clear the interrelationships of catfishes, with significant implications at the research of the final evolution of those fishes. a good a part of this paintings, as a result, offers with a cladistic research of catfish higher-level phylogeny in accordance with broad morphological information, during which are incorporated a few terminal taxa no longer incorporated in earlier analyses, yet mostly a great number of characters normally excluded from these analyses, with specific cognizance being given to catfish morphology. This research supplies specific significance to complicated, built-in buildings. it will likely be curiosity to scholars, ichthyologists and biologists operating in evolution, taxonomy and phylogeny.

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Additional info for Morphological Evolution, Adaptations, Homoplasies, Constraints, and Evolutionary Trends: Catfishes as a Case Study on General Phylogeny & Macroevolution

Sample text

True enough. But this time at a generic level, which is precisely the strength of the procedure applied in this study. Morphological variation within a genus is necessarily less than within the family in which this genus is included, unless, of course, the family is monogeneric. The genera representing each family in the phylogenetic analysis are briefly listed below. 3). Family Akysidae. Monophyly well supported, two subfamilies recognised. One genus from each subfamily included in the analysis: the type genus Akysis (Akysinae) and Parakysis (Parakysinae).

Synapomorphies listed by Schaefer (1990: 204) to define the clade formed by astroblepids, loricariids and scoloplacids included: 1)'loss of open cranial fontanels'; 2) 'loss of cranial aperture which receives the cleithral dorsal process'; 3) 'presence of bifid jaw teeth'; 4) 'loss of interoperculum'; 5) 'ventrolateral shift in articulation of rib on sixth centrum'; 6) 'presence of lateral bone'; 7) 'loss of pterygoethmoid ligament'; 8) 'loss of cranial attachment'; 9) 'loss of interoperculomandibular ligament'; 10) 'shift in origin of retractor tentaculi muscle'; 11)'bifurcation of hyohyoideus muscles'.

B) Cladogram produced from the numerical analysis of 126 characters with a weighting (4) on one of them, namely the "number of vertebrae united to the complex vertebra" (Mo, 1991: 193). 64 and was only poorly resolved. The other (Fig. 6B) was based on a 'weighted' numerical analysis (also using Hennig 1986) of the same data matrix in which to one of the 126 characters ('number of vertebrae united to complex vertebra') was given a phylogenetic weight 4 times that of the other characters. 72 and, apart from two trichotomies, was completely resolved.

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Morphological Evolution, Adaptations, Homoplasies, Constraints, and Evolutionary Trends: Catfishes as a Case Study on General Phylogeny & Macroevolution by Rui Diogo


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