By Prof. Dr. Bruce J. Zobel, Jerry R. Sprague (auth.)
The pattern in forestry is towards shorter rotations and extra whole utiliza tion of bushes. the explanations are: (1) monetary pressures to procure speedy returns at the forestry funding made attainable via an previous harvest; (2) enforced harvest of younger plantations to keep up a continual offer of cellulose for generators the place wooden shortages are skilled; (3) thinning younger plantations, either simply because they have been planted too densely first and foremost and since thinning is completed the place lengthy rotation caliber timber are the forestry aim; (4) extra extensive usage is being performed utilizing tops and small diameter bushes; and (5) there's curiosity in utilizing younger (juvenile) wooden for specified items due to its specific features and the improvement of latest applied sciences. the biggest present-day resource of conifer juvenile wooden is from thinnings of plantations the place hundreds of thousands of hectares of pine have been planted too densely. end result of the higher progress expense due to enhanced silviculture and stable genetic inventory, plantations might want to be thinned seriously. due to this development, younger wooden makes up an more and more higher percentage of the entire conifer wooden provide every year. quite a lot of juvenile wooden from tough woods also are at the moment on hand, particularly within the tropics and subtropics, a result of speedy development fee of the species used, which ends up in shorter rotations and ess~ntially all juvenile wood.
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Extra resources for Juvenile Wood in Forest Trees
The wood density of juvenile wood from 22-year-old radiata pine was 330kglm3 while that of the mature wood was 430 kglm3near the bark (Harris 1965). Bunn (1981) found the wood of 25-year-old trees adjacent to the pith had a density of 340kg/m3 while it was 450kglm3 near the bark. Mature wood, as expected, had thicker cell walls than juvenile wood in Scots pine but cell diameters were the same for both kinds of wood (Orsler et al. 1972). In a study on old lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta), Gonzalez (1989) divided the trees roughly into an inner segment and an outer segment.
Percentage differences in three properties are shown for Caribbean pine (Pinus caribaea) grown in two areas. The solid line represents values for the natural forest wood properties; the bars shown are for juvenile wood as a comparison. 6. Characteristics studied for boards made from juvenile and mature wood of loblolly pine. 10 nile were 3: 2 for modulus of rupture, 5: 3 for modulus of elasticity and 2: 4 for compression strength. For specific gravity, the ratio was 1: 4 and cell length 2: 7. For microfibrillar angle there was a ratio of 3: 0 for juvenile to mature wood.
Elliottii P. elliottii P. elliottii var densa P. caribaea x P. tecunumanii P. maximinoi P. oocarpa P. oocarpa P. oocarpa P. oocarpa P. oocarpa P. oocarpa P. patula P. pseudostrobus P. radiata P. radiata P. taeda P. taeda P. taeda P. taeda P. taeda P. 39 9 20 9 10 6 5 11 6 11 No. 53 0040 0045 0044 Specific gravity Species 10 18 Many Many 49 18 8 5 10 30 30 Many 16 112 30 75 20 20 9 20 8 49 24 Many 30 Many No. 12. Variation in specific gravity of juvenile wood for various pine species Wright and Wessels (1992) Lima (1987) Dvorak and Kellison (1991) Birks and Barnes (1990) Tovar (1987) Wright (1994) Gimenez (1982) Wright and Wessels (1992) Wright and Wessels (1992) Cown et al.
Juvenile Wood in Forest Trees by Prof. Dr. Bruce J. Zobel, Jerry R. Sprague (auth.)