By Timothy D. Paine
Call for for bushes and fibre maintains to develop and is being met via elevated reliance on plantation forestry. a few of the plantations which are being grown around the world are non-native species that experience features of quick development and reliable advertisement traits. often times, the excessive premiums of creation are due to the the absence of local herbivore and illnesses. This restricted pest prestige is threatened as pest species stream world wide. even as there's quandary approximately threats of those non-native plantation species on local groups and the impression of fixing climates on woodland productiveness. This quantity explores a lot of those concerns for the 1st time.
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Additional resources for Invasive Forest Insects, Introduced Forest Trees, and Altered Ecosystems: Ecological Pest Management in Global Forests of a Changing World
Aduncum is a small tree of early stages of rainforest succession, and P. , 2003). 6. Conclusions about the “rule of resemblance / dissemblance” The rule is often verified but it also suffers from many exceptions, making all situations possible, in interference with the insect host range. Moreover, even in the case of specialized insects and hypothesizing that the phenological coincidence is 34 LIEUTIER always realized, the rule of resemblance / dissemblance must be modulated to take into account possible coevolutionary processes.
1999) and for the cynipid Andricus quercuscalicis extending westwards throughout Europe while following the human introduction of its host Quercus cerris (Stone & Sunnucks, 1993). , 1994). , 1995). Parthenogenesis has been reported to facilitate the success of the invaders (Simberloff, 1989; Niemelä and Mattson, 1996 and references therein) but this does not seem to account for adaptation to tree resistance. On the other hand, polyploidy and heterozygosity, which also favor invasions because of conferring broader ecological amplitude to the invader (Bullini & Nascetti, 1990; Niemelä & Mattson, 1996), can be important for a quick adaptation to tree resistance.
2003). P. umbellatum5 Novel host plants Number of indivduals P. macropiper and other native families 3 only other local families than Piper not native plants P. umbellatum2 Number of species P. aduncum1 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Relative abundance of caterpillar species from various origin Figure 8. , 2003, modified). In UK, O. brumata is one of the lepidopteran species that have shifted from angiosperms to Sitka spruce, and different populations of this insect can now be distinguished in relation to the food quality of their host plant.
Invasive Forest Insects, Introduced Forest Trees, and Altered Ecosystems: Ecological Pest Management in Global Forests of a Changing World by Timothy D. Paine