By Cosimo Bambi, Alexandre D. Dolgov

ISBN-10: 3662480778

ISBN-13: 9783662480779

ISBN-10: 3662480786

ISBN-13: 9783662480786

This ebook introduces the elemental options of particle cosmology and covers all of the major features of the massive Bang version (expansion of the Universe, large Bang Nucleosynthesis, Cosmic Microwave history, huge scale constructions) and the quest for brand new physics (inflation, baryogenesis, darkish topic, darkish energy). it is also the vast majority of contemporary discoveries, reminiscent of the right decision of cosmological parameters utilizing experiments like WMAP and Planck, the invention of the Higgs boson at LHC, the non-discovery so far of supersymmetric debris, and the hunt for the imprint of gravitational waves at the CMB polarization by means of Planck and BICEP.

This textbook is predicated at the authors’ classes on Cosmology, and goals at introducing Particle Cosmology to senior undergraduate and graduate scholars. it's been specifically written to be obtainable even for these scholars who would not have a powerful history mostly Relativity and quantum box thought. The content material of this ebook is geared up in an easy-to-use type and scholars will locate it a worthwhile learn guide.

**Read or Download Introduction to Particle Cosmology: The Standard Model of Cosmology and its Open Problems PDF**

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**Extra resources for Introduction to Particle Cosmology: The Standard Model of Cosmology and its Open Problems**

**Example text**

2) where γ (λ1 ) and γ (λ2 ) correspond, respectively, to the point A and B. 3) where we have used the Einstein convention of summation over repeated indices; that is, gi j dxi dx j ≡ dλ dλ 3 3 gi j i=1 j=1 dxi dx j . 4) In this case, gi j is 1 for i = j and 0 for i = j. 5) and therefore g11 = 1, g22 = r 2 , g33 = r 2 sin2 θ , and all the off-diagonal terms vanish. If we go from the coordinate system {x i } to the coordinate system {x i }, the infinitesimal displacements change as dxi → dx i = ∂x i a dx .

Since we are not able to get the exact solution of the field equations describing the process, we adopt e− e− e− e− = e− + γ e− e− e− e− e− + e− γ e− e− γ e− e− e− e− e− γ + e− e− + ... γ e− e− Fig. 3 Feynman diagrams for electron-electron scattering. The perturbative approach works √ √ because the expansion parameter is αem 1. 3 Feynman Diagrams 43 a perturbative approach. At the zeroth order, there is no interaction. At the first order, we have the exchange of a photon. Every vertex in the diagram is suppressed by the √ 1 is the fine structure constant and factor αem , where αem = e2 /4π ≈ 1/137 the expansion parameter.

73) where φ is the scalar field and m is the mass of the particles associated to this field. 74) where ∂μ ∂ μ = ∂02 − ∂12 − ∂22 − ∂32 is the D’Alembert operator. In curved spacetime, the action is given by Eq. 71) and the Lagrangian density becomes L = 1 1 μν g ∂μ φ (∂ν φ) − m 2 φ 2 . 75) The field equation in curved spacetime is ∇μ ∂ μ − m 2 φ = 0. 76) As discussed in Sect. 5, it is not guaranteed that the Lagrangian density in the presence of a gravitational field is given by Eq. 75) and there are no interaction terms.

### Introduction to Particle Cosmology: The Standard Model of Cosmology and its Open Problems by Cosimo Bambi, Alexandre D. Dolgov

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