By Robert B. Northrop
Dimension SYSTEMSIntroductionMeasurement process ArchitectureErrors in MeasurementStandards utilized in MeasurementsChapter SummaryProblemsANALOG sign CONDITIONINGIntroductionDifferential AmplifiersOperational AmplifiersAnalog lively filter out functions utilizing Op-AmpsInstrumentation AmplifiersNonlinear Analog sign Processing through Op-Amps and via certain functionality ModulesCharge AmplifiersPhase delicate RectifiersChapter SummaryProblemsNOISE AND COHERENT INTERFACE IN MEASUREMENTSIntroductionRandom Noise in CircuitsPropagation of Gaussian Noise via Linear FiltersBroadband Noise issue and Noise. Read more...
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Additional resources for Introduction to Instrumentation and Measurements
In 1960, the meter was redefined in terms of the wavelength of monochromatic light. 73 wavelengths in vacuum of the orange radiation corresponding to the transition between the levels 2p10 and 5d5 of the krypton-86 atom. However, this definition of the meter by wavelength assumes the permanence and invariance of the atomic energy levels, Planck’s constant and the speed of light. 3363420 ns). Frequency stabilized laser sources are used to realize this definition [Sirohi and Kothiyal, 1991]. Gauge blocks are used as secondary standards for length.
Limiting Error (LE) is an important parameter used in specifying instrument accuracy. The limiting error, or guarantee error, is given by manufacturers to define the outer bounds or the expected worst case error. For example, a certain voltmeter may be specified as having an accuracy of 2% of its full scale reading. 67%. In many cases, such as in the determination of a resistor value by Wheatstone bridge, the QUM must be calculated from a formula in which various system parameters, each having a specified accuracy, appears.
It should be pointed out that not all measurands are linear functions of a single independent variable and the above analysis represents one of the simpler cases in statistical data analysis. 4 Standards Used in Measurements One of the main concerns of all those who have occasion to make a measurement is whether the instrument is calibrated or not. As seen above, calibration is necessary, along with precision, to enable accurate measurements to be made. Calibration implies observing the instrument’s performance when measuring a standard of some sort.
Introduction to Instrumentation and Measurements by Robert B. Northrop