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By Elaine Nicpon Marieb; Katja Hoehn

ISBN-10: 0805359095

ISBN-13: 9780805359091

ISBN-10: 0805359109

ISBN-13: 9780805359107

ISBN-10: 080536126X

ISBN-13: 9780805361261

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Functional Anatomy of the Respiratory System 831 The Nose and Paranasal Sinuses • The Pharynx • The Larynx The Trachea • The Bronchi and Subdivisions: The Bronchial Tree • The Lungs and Pleurae Lymphatic Vessels 774 Distribution and Structure of Lymphatic Vessels • Lymph 'Itansport MAKING CONNECTIONS Developmental Aspects of the Immune System 825 798 Antigens 799 Complete Antigens and Haptens • Antigenic Determinants • Self-Antigens: MHC Proteins Cells of the Adaptive Immune System: An Overview 800 Lymphocytes· Antigen-Presenting Cells Humoral Immune Response 804 Clonal Selection and Differentiation of B Cells • Immunological Memory • Active and Passive Humoral Immunity • Antibodies Cell-Mediated Immune Response 810 Clonal Selection and Differentiation of T Cells • Specific T Cell Roles • Organ Transplants and Prevention of Rejection Respiratory Adjustments 869 Adjustments During Exercise • Adjustments at High Altitude Homeostatic Imbalances of the Respiratory System 870 Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease • Asthma • Tuberculosis • Lung Cancer Developmental Aspects of the Respiratory System A ClOSIER lOOK 873 Dangerous Raptures of the Deep 868 MAKING CONNECTiONS 876 23 The Digestive System 882 PART 1: Overview of the Digestive System Digestive Processes 883 884 Basic Functional Concepts 885 Digestive System Organs: Relationship and Structural Plan 886 Relationship of the Digestive Organs to the Peritoneum • Blood Supply: The Splanchnic Circulation • Histology of the Alimentary Canal • Enteric Nervous System of the Alimentary Canal ~ xxvi Contents Chapter 23, continued PART 2: Functional Anatomy of the Digestive System 889 The Mouth, Pharynx, and Esophagus 889 The Mouth and Associated Organs • The Pharynx • The Esophagus • Digestive Processes Occurring in the Mouth, Pharynx, and Esophagus The Stomach 899 Gross Anatomy • Microscopic Anatomy • Digestive Processes Occurring in the Stomach The Small Intestine and Associated Structures 908 The Small Intestine • The Liver and Gallbladder • The Pancreas • Digestive Processes Occurring in the Small Intestine The Large Intestine 922 Gross Anatomy • Microscopic Anatomy • Bacterial Flora • Digestive Processes Occurring in the Large Intestine PART 3: Physiology of Chemical Digestion and Absorption 927 Kidney Physiology: Mechanisms of Urine Formation 1007 Step 1: Glomerular Filtration • Step 2: Thbular Reabsorption • Step 3: Thbular Secretion • Regulation of Urine Concentration and Volume • Renal Clearance Urine 1021 Physical Characteristics • Chemical Composition Ureters 1023 Urinary Bladder Urethra 1024 1026 Micturition 1027 Developmental Aspects of the Urinary System A CLOSER LOOK 26 1027 Chronic Renal Disease: A National Health Crisis in the Making 1022 Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance 1035 Chemical Digestion 927 Mechanism of Chemical Digestion: Enzymatic Hydrolysis • Chemical Digestion of Specific Food Groups Body Fluids 1036 Body Water Content • Fluid Compartments • Composition of Body Fluids • Fluid Movement Among Compartments Absorption 931 Absorption of Specific Nutrients • Malabsorption of Nutrients Water Balance and ECF Osmolality 1039 Regulation of Water Inta1

The epigastric region is located superior to the umbilical region (epi = upon, above; gastri = belly). • The hypogastric (pubic) region is located inferior to the umbilical region (hypo = below). • The right and left iliac, or inguinal, regions (ing'gwI-nal) are located lateral to the hypogastric region (iliac = superior part of the hip bone). • The right and left lumbar regions lie lateral to the umbilical region (lumbus = loin). • The right and left hypochondriac regions flank. the epigastric region laterally (chandra = cartilage).

Briefly, epithelium covers the body surface and lines its cavities; muscle provides movement; connective tissue supports and protects body organs; and nervous tissue provides a means of rapid internal communication by transmitting electrical impulses. An organ is a discrete structure composed of at least two tissue types (four is more common) that performs a specific function for the body. At the organ level, extremely complex functions become possible. Let's take the stomach for an example. Its lining is an epithelium that produces digestive juices; the bulk of its wall is muscle, which chums and mixes stomach contents (food); its connective tissue reinforces the soft muscular walls; and its nerve fibers increase digestive activity by stimulating the muscle to contract more vigorously and the glands to secrete more digestive juices.

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Human anatomy & physiology by Elaine Nicpon Marieb; Katja Hoehn

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