This booklet units out to extend the attention, of operators in the chemical and approach undefined, to the risks of air and oxygen. It starts by means of describing the basics of fireplace utilizing the hearth triangle to provide an explanation for the connection of air and oxygen to fires. Discusses the makes use of of air and oxygen in the chemical and procedure industries, ahead of mentioning the aptitude dangers on the subject of the prospective makes use of. utilizing examples of tangible injuries to spotlight the aptitude threats and clarify the prospective motives, it increases the information and information of operators to the hazards of air and oxygen, permitting them to identify risks ahead of injuries ensue. The booklet concludes with a precis part reviewing and summing up the data in the booklet. a very good advent to the subject for college kids.
desk of Contents
1. a few basics
2. The Chemistry of fireplace
five. Ignition assets
7. different disasters
eight. steer clear of Flammable combinations
nine. get rid of Oxygen
10. particular risks of natural Oxygen
eleven. Trapped strain danger
12. a few issues to recollect
attempt your self!
Acronyms and Abbreviations
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Additional resources for Hazards of Air and Oxygen
ACCIDENT Due to a combination of unusual circumstances prior to and during an unscheduled shutdown of the Fluid Catalytic Cracker unit, a flammable mixture of air and residual tail gas reached the flare system where an explosion occurred in the knockout drum. The force of explosion deformed the knockout drum and blew a 2-inch nozzle and valve off the end of the vessel. The source of ignition was probably pyrophoric scale. ACCIDENT A fire occurred inside a FCCU reactor which resulted in severe bulging of a 7 ft.
This should be the fuel or the air (oxygen), since ignition sources are so plentiful. 3. One-fifth of air is oxygen. Oxygen is always present if air is present. 4. A flammable mixture of commercial oxygen and petroleum vapours: • • • provides a wider explosive range; makes the mixture easier to detonate; creates a more violent explosion than air-petroleum vapour. Eliminate use of commercial oxygen and minimize likelihood of a detonation. 5. Detonations are violent. Vessels fragment and fragments scatter.
In regenerative-type catalytic cracking and reforming, and other processes requiring air, the addition of air must be rigorously controlled. Adequate safeguards must be provided to ensure that all mixtures of air and hydrocarbons which form will stay outside the flammable range. In considering the hazard of flammable mixtures, careful distinction should be made between cone-roof tanks and vessels designed for pressure. The intentionally weak joint between the roof and the shell in a tank permits rapid relief of pressure in case of an internal explosion.
Hazards of Air and Oxygen