By Fernando Pacheco-Torgal
This ebook presents an up-to-date cutting-edge evaluate on new advancements in alkali-activation. the most binder of concrete, Portland cement, represents nearly eighty% of the entire CO2 emissions of concrete that are approximately 6 to 7% of the Planet’s overall CO2 emissions. this is often relatively severe within the present context of weather switch and it may get even worse as the call for for Portland cement is predicted to extend by way of virtually 2 hundred% via 2050 from 2010 degrees, achieving 6000 million tons/year. Alkali-activated binders signify a substitute for Portland cement having larger longevity and a reduce CO2 footprint.
- Reviews the chemistry, combine layout, manufacture and homes of alkali-activated cement-based concrete binders
- Considers functionality in adversarial environmental conditions.
- Offers equivalent emphasis at the technology in the back of the know-how and its use in civil engineering.
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Additional info for Handbook of Alkali-Activated Cements, Mortars and Concretes
5–1 mm dark rings appeared around lighter-coloured and thinner slag rings. EDX microanalysis confirmed that regardless of the type of activator, the majority product was always a C‑S‑H gel with a low Ca/Si ratio containing small amounts of Na, Mg, Al and S. When NaOH was the activator, a semi-crystalline C‑S‑H gel (I) was visible in the early stages of the reaction, while with waterglass, crystallinity remained very low even after a full year of hydration. Fernández-Jiménez et al. (2003) also used different microscopic techniques to study these materials.
2 Reaction mechanisms The alkaline activation of silica- and alumina-rich materials is less thoroughly understood than slag activation because it is a relatively recent line of research. Glukhovsky (1994) proposed a general mechanism for the activation reactions in these materials, consisting of three stages: (a) destruction-coagulation; (b) coagulationcondensation; and (c) condensation-crystallisation. In the first (see Eq. 2), the reaction begins when the OH- ions in the alkaline activator break the Si‑O‑Si bonds.
Phases of this type have also been found in cement + slag blends. • C4AH13-type phases have been detected in slag activated with NaOH. , 1995). , 1992) have observed carbonated phases such as C4AcH11 and C8Ac2H24 in slag pastes activated with NaOH and Ca(OH)2. 4 Micro- and nanostructure of the gel formed: C‑A‑S‑H-type gels The alkaline activation of blast furnace slag may vary slightly with the chemical and mineralogical composition of the slag, as well as with activator type and composition. Sodium hydroxide and waterglass are the two activators most commonly used.
Handbook of Alkali-Activated Cements, Mortars and Concretes by Fernando Pacheco-Torgal