Guide to the trees and shrubs of Minnesota (Minnesota plant - download pdf or read online

By Frederic E Clements

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In addition to presidential leadership, strong congressional policy entrepreneurs, such as Sens. Henry Jackson (D-WA), Edmund Muskie (D-ME), and Gaylord Nelson (D-WI) and Reps. John Dingell (D-MI) and Morris Udall (D-AZ), used their leadership positions to build a legal framework for national responsibility for environmental quality. Established interest groups such as the Audubon Society, The Wilderness Society, the Sierra Club, the Izaak Walton League, and the National Wildlife Federation became more involved in legislative activities.

Declines in the economy were tied to burdensome regulations under the Clean Air Act, which ironically had been signed in 1990 by his father when president. Environmentalists had worked closely with the first Bush administration to enact the air pollution legislation. But under George W. Bush, the statute’s New Source Review provisions were criticized as discouraging modernization of old power plants, and thus the rules became voluntary rather than mandatory—just as he had done in Texas when governor.

34 Perhaps even more important than appointments within the executive branch, which “expire” when the president leaves office, are appointments to the judicial branch. Given that all federal judges appointed under Article III of the Constitution serve for life, a president’s impact on policy can endure long after he has left office. President Reagan, for example, appointed 358 conservative-leaning federal judges, more than any other president up to then. W. Bush, continued the pattern; almost all of the 187 lifetime appointees from his administration are still deciding cases today.

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Guide to the trees and shrubs of Minnesota (Minnesota plant studies II) by Frederic E Clements

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