By Richard Hofstadter, Beatrice K. Hofstadter
Original yr of publication: 1969; 1982
The 3rd quantity in nice concerns In American background, From Reconstruction to the current Day is now up to date and revised to incorporate one other decade of yankee historical past. Beatrice okay. Hofstadter, spouse of the past due Richard Hofstadter and herself an historian who labored with him heavily at the unique variation, has additional a brand new part masking 1970 to 1981 and rearranged different sections within the gentle of what has given that proved to be of lasting value. This number of major records in American historical past now is going from Lincoln's Proclamation at the Wade-Davis invoice on July eight, 1864, to Reagan's tackle on palms regulate Negotiations on November 18, 1981.
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Additional info for Great Issues in American History, Vol. III: From Reconstruction to the Present Day, 1864-1981
As the agency’s mind-control focused more on behavioral factors such as isolation and stress, the Fund contracted two unwitting social scientists, Alan Howard and Robert A. Scott, to do library research, which they later published as a journal article on stress and gastric disease. Simultaneously, the Fund made that research available to the agency, which “reverse engineered” the ﬁndings to understand how a subject under coercive interrogation might “reduce the ‘imbalance’ of discomfort or pain .
The experiments with drugs proved chimerical—a failure illustrated by a hidden chapter in the otherwise distinguished career of Dr. Henry K. Beecher of Harvard University. Although such drug research was pursued vigorously at CIA headquarters and at a half-dozen university research hospitals for a decade, this controversial agency experimentation led nowhere except to lawsuits. By contrast, conventional behavioral research at leading universities, supported by secret CIA funding, contributed to the development of a distinctly American form of psychological torture.
And, for historians such as this writer, history’s most elemental tool, chronology, provides a trail through clandestine bureaucracies cloaked in layers of secrecy—akin to the thread that guided Theseus through the Minotaur’s labyrinth to slay the monster and liberate his victims. Once the shock of revelation has faded, history, like ﬁlm or television, can also serve to numb and normalize extralegal state action among the citizens of a nation. But, in an age of globalization, such revelations ramify uncontrollably, informing formal complaints before international bodies and emboldening other states to exercise their universal jurisdiction for crimes against humanity, thereby constraining the usual processes of impunity that once operated largely within national boundaries.
Great Issues in American History, Vol. III: From Reconstruction to the Present Day, 1864-1981 by Richard Hofstadter, Beatrice K. Hofstadter