By Prof. Malcolm S. Longair (auth.)
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Additional resources for Galaxy Formation
The Universe must be isotropic. 2. There must have been a very small baryon-anti baryon asymmetry in the very early Universe. 3. The Universe must have been set up remarkably close to the critical cosmological model, Do = 1, in the first place. 4. An initial spectrum of fluctuations must have been present from which the present large-scale structure of the Universe formed. The origin of the fourth set of initial data was described in the last section. Condition 1 arises from the fact that as we look further back in time, the horizon scale encompasses less and less mass and so it is a problem to understand why the Universe should be so isotropic on the largest scales we can observe today.
As in the Hot Dark Matter scenario, after the epoch of recombination, the baryonic matter collapsed into the growing potential wells in the dark matter. After recombination, galaxies, groups and clusters formed by a process of hierarchical clustering. A remarkably useful formalism for the process of hierarchical clustering was described by William Press and Paul Schechter in 1974 which gives a good description of how the mass function of objects of different masses evolves with time. These alternative dark matter pictures of galaxy formation have been the subject of a great deal of analysis and computer simulation.
At that stage, the 26 2 The Large Scale Structure of the Universe galaxies could not have formed and so all the ordinary matter, which was eventually to become galaxies as we know them, was still in the form of remarkably smooth, ionised pre-galactic gas. At earlier epochs, the pre-galactic gas was fully ionised and was very strongly coupled to the background radiation by Thomson scattering. When we look back to these epochs, it is as if we were looking at the surface of a star surrounding us in all directions, but the temperature of the radiation we observe has been cooled by a cosmological redshift factor of 1500, so that what we observe is redshifted into the millimetre waveband.
Galaxy Formation by Prof. Malcolm S. Longair (auth.)