By George E. Totten, Steven R. Westbrook, Rajesh J. Shah
Basically, all the vital functions and try out tools curious about the fuels and lubricants are mentioned, both at once or in a roundabout way, and are referenced during this book.
Manual 37 is a complete, in-depth, well-referenced guide that offers an in depth evaluation of all the vital ASTM and non-ASTM fuels and lubricants try out strategies. Readers gets an intensive evaluate of the application-related houses being verified and an in depth dialogue of the rules at the back of the assessments and their dating to the homes themselves.
The info is subdivided into 4 sections: Petroleum Refining procedures for Fuels and Lubricant Basestocks; Fuels; Hydrocarbons and artificial Lubricants; and Performance/Property trying out Procedures.
Thirty-eight chapters cover:
Overview of petroleum oil refining processes
Liquefied petroleum gasoline (LPG)
Aviation, car diesel, non-aviation gasoline turbine, and marine fuels
Gasoline and oxygenated gas blends
Petroleum hydrocarbons base oil chemistry
Environmentally-friendly fluids, together with these formulated from vegetable oil and artificial ester basestocks
Lubricating oils for generators, compressors (industrial and refrigeration), gears, and automobile applications
Oils utilized in non-lubricating functions, equivalent to warmth move fluids and steel quenchants
Static petroleum dimension, volatility, elemental research, gasoline combustion features, oxidation, corrosion, and viscosity
Properties of coke, petroleum pitch, and carbon materials
Hydrocarbon structural research procedures
Lubrication and wear
Environmental and toxicity testing
Statistical caliber coverage trying out techniques
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Additional info for Fuels and lubricants handbook : technology, properties, performance, and testing
In addition, the a m o u n t of recirculating liquid product required for proper catalyst bed operation is usually sufficient to provide a complete heat sink for the exothermic heat of reaction; thus, the reactor essentially operates isothermally. This permits startof-run temperature as high as 435°C, which is not technically or economically feasible in fixed bed reactors. This temperature, in turn, provides enough thermal energy to substantially crack vacuum resid, and, from the presence of hydrogen at high pressure, typically 15000-18000 kPa, enough hydrogenation reactivity to yield substantially desulfurized lower boiling products.
Selection is based on concentration of H2S in the hydrocarbon gas stream, a m o u n t of other acid gas components such as carbonyl sulfide and carbon dioxide, and the relative solvent activity compared with useable concentration of amine in water. The hydrocarbon feed stream is contacted countercurrent to a "lean" solvent, free of H2S, in absorbers (Fig 14). The sol- CO/CO2 + H2 = CH4 + H2O Most of the newer steam reformers substitute adsorption for third-step chemistry to remove impurities from the hydrogen.
CHAPTER 1: PETROLEUM OIL REFINING 25 TABLE 20—Fluidized bed resid hydrocracking unit yields. Products @ 66% Conversion Boiling Range, °C Yield, %w Density, kg/m' Sulfur, p p m w Nitrogen, p p m w Products @ 80% Conversion Feed Naph LGO HGO Vac Res Naph LGO HGO Vac Res 565 + C5-175 9 710 300 85 175-345 18 860 800 480 345-565 32 920 2500 1900 565 + 34 1010 12 400 5200 C5-175 12 710 900 175-345 23 860 2700 630 345-565 38 930 11800 2500 565 + 20 1060 27 800 7000 1037 54 000 4000 Conversion levels of 50-90% have been commercially attained.
Fuels and lubricants handbook : technology, properties, performance, and testing by George E. Totten, Steven R. Westbrook, Rajesh J. Shah