By Alejandro Estrada, Theodore H. Fleming (auth.), Alejandro Estrada, Theodore H. Fleming (eds.)
A big choice of vegetation, ranging in measurement from wooded area ground herbs to massive cover timber, depend on animals to disperse their seeds. general values of the percentage of tropical vascular crops that produce fleshy culmination and feature animal-dispersed seeds diversity from 50-90%, counting on habitat. during this part, the authors speak about this mutualism from the plant's point of view. Herrera starts off by means of tough the concept that plant features often interpreted as being the fabricated from fruit-frugivore coevolution particularly are the end result of a response-counter-response type of evolutionary method. He makes use of examples of congeneric crops residing in very various biotic and abiotic environments and whose fossilizable features haven't replaced over lengthy classes of time to argue that there exists very little foundation for assuming that gradualistic swap and environmental monitoring characterizes the interactions among crops and their vertebrate seed dispersers. a typical topic that runs during the papers by means of Herrera, Denslow et at. , and Stiles and White is the significance of the 'fruiting atmosphere' (i. e. the spatial relationships of conspecific and non-conspecific fruiting crops) on premiums of fruit removing and styles of seed rain. Herrera and Denslow et at. indicate that this atmosphere is basically outdoor the regulate of person plant species and, consequently, heavily coevolved interactions among vertebrates and vegetation are not likely to evolve.
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Extra resources for Frugivores and seed dispersal
Opler. 1983. Reproductive biology of plants in tropical forests. In: Tropical rain forest ecosystems (ed. ). Elsevier Sci. Pub!. , New York. W. Lepthien. 1976. Synchronous eruptions of boreal seed-eating birds. Am. Nat. 110: 559-57l. , and R. Shine. 1979. Iteroparous animals that skip opportunities for reproduction. Am. Nat. 114: 296-303. S. D. Alexander. 1978. Promotion of floral initiation in Fuerta avocado by low temperature and short daylength. Scientia Hort. 8: 213-217. 1974. Predictability, constancy, and contigency of periodic phenomena.
Vegetative growth in the same year from 1980 through 1985. There was a relatively weak trend towards reduced fruit production following a year of heavy fruit production. Vegetative growth and reproduction were more negatively correlated in most species. Tree species Correlation coefficient: current vs. previous fruiting No. successive plant-years Correlation coefficient: fruiting vs. vegetative growth No. successive plant-years No. individual trees B. mexicana B. costaricensis N. gentlei N. hypoglauca N.
The 'allocation' hypothesis (Harper, 1977; Foster, 1982b) receives some support from this study. Fruit production in a given year was negatively correlated with the previous years's reproductive effort in the majority of species. Nonetheless, absolute correlation coefficients were low and mostly insignificant. More convincing is the evidence that vegetative growth and fruit production in the same year are negatively correlated in 12 of 15 species. Larger sample size and more detailed estimates of fruit crop size may clarify the relationship between fruit production and vegetative growth or previous reproduction.
Frugivores and seed dispersal by Alejandro Estrada, Theodore H. Fleming (auth.), Alejandro Estrada, Theodore H. Fleming (eds.)