By Ulrich Ellwanger
In this ebook, the writer leads the reader, step-by-step and with none complicated arithmetic, to a transparent figuring out of the principles of recent ordinary particle physics and cosmology. He additionally addresses present and arguable questions about subject matters resembling string thought. The ebook includes light introductions to the theories of targeted and normal relativity, and likewise classical and quantum box thought. the basic points of those thoughts are understood with assistance from easy calculations; for instance, the strength of gravity because of the curvature of the space-time.
Also handled are the massive Bang, darkish subject and darkish power, in addition to the almost immediately identified interactions of uncomplicated debris: electrodynamics, the robust and the susceptible interactions together with the Higgs boson. ultimately, the e-book sketches as but speculative theories: Grand Unification theories, supersymmetry, string thought and the assumption of extra dimensions of space-time. due to the fact that no better mathematical or physics services is needed, the publication is additionally appropriate for school and college scholars firstly in their reports. pastime astronomers and different technological know-how lovers looking a deeper perception than are available in well known remedies also will savor this distinctive e-book.
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Extra resources for From the Universe to the Elementary Particles: A First Introduction to Cosmology and the Fundamental Interactions
Up to now this is the only—though very indirect—verification of gravitational waves. The direct detection of gravitational waves is not easy. A gravitational wave passing between two objects generates a small time-dependent variation of the measured distance between the objects in a plane perpendicular to its propagation direction. 7). Gravitational waves have the following particular property: whenever a distance along a given direction is reduced for a short time, the distance along the perpendicular direction (in the plane perpendicular to the direction of propagation) increases.
The route from point A to point B corresponds to a two-component vector r = AB: x AB rx = . The numerical values of the intervals along the x-axis x AB r= ry y AB and the y-axis y AB differ in the different coordinate systems (for fixed points A and B): Fig. 1 The Special Theory of Relativity 31 x AB y AB x AB y AB = However, no privileged coordinate system exists in empty space; every “observer” can choose a coordinate system according to his taste, and different observers will measure different quantities x AB and y AB in general.
These wave solutions are denoted as gravitational waves. However, gravitational waves are very difficult to generate: owing to the smallness of the gravitational constant, enormous masses have to be strongly accelerated. 4 Gravitational Waves 51 Fig. 4 Variations of distances in the plane perpendicular to the direction of propagation of a gravitational wave Big Bang. It is very difficult, however, to predict the amplitudes of the gravitational waves generated under these circumstances. An exception are systems of two very massive and compact stars (so-called neutron stars) rotating around each other.
From the Universe to the Elementary Particles: A First Introduction to Cosmology and the Fundamental Interactions by Ulrich Ellwanger