By John I. Thornton, D. Crim (auth.), Prof. Dr. A. Maehly, Prof. Dr. R. L. Williams (eds.)
Among the sampies accrued from the crime scene, tissue sampies reminiscent of bone, teeth, hair, nail, epidermis, muscle and others are extremely important hint facts which offer us with to be had info for private id. so as to receive such details, those tissue sampies might be completely tested utilizing traditional tools together with morphology and histo-pathology as weIl as blood grouping. in the course of the equipment defined above, blood grouping will provide us trustworthy informa tion for private id to a excessive measure of sure bet. with a view to achieve identifying blood teams from tissue sampies, the strategies used can be rigorously chosen as the content material and the distribution of blood crew ingredients are assorted for numerous tissue sampies. in addition, blood team antigen actions are susceptible-to postmortem alterations resulting in the decreasing in their actions. From this perspective, it really is necessary to undertake a particular and hugely delicate approach for grouping oftissue sampies for regimen use. reckoning on tissue stipulations, sufficient pre therapy of the sampies might be required for concentrating blood crew elements. For regimen blood grouping of tissue sampies, the absorption-inhibition, the hemagglutination-inhibition and the absorption-elution process be triumphant and are such a lot favoured in forensic technological know-how. In instances of unmarried epithelial cells and very small tissue fragments, the combined agglutination method will be instructed. including to those regimen equipment, immunohistochemical recommendations akin to these utilizing fluorescein-Iabelled antibodies, enzyme-Iabelled antibodies and ferritin-Iabelled antibodies were lately utilized to the blood grouping of tissue sampies.
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Iv) Add one drop of 2% red cell suspension of group A, B or 0, and agitate the mixture for 5min. v) Observe the manifesting agglutination patterns and read the hemagglutination-inhibition titre. 3 Technical Problems in ABO Grouping of Bone Tissues A. Factors which cause false judgement in the absorption-elution technique. Table 2 shows the technical evaluation in the judgement of blood grouping of fresh and old bone sampies using the absorption-elution technique. In the case of fresh bone marrow and spongy bone with known blood groups, it is possible to determine the a 6 0 3 5 8 6 0 A B AB 5 3 A B AB 8 5 9 4 2 A B AB 0 A B AB 0 5 9 4 2 5 9 4 2 0 A B AB Number tested Known blood groupsb b Determined from blood, hair or nail; Compact bone Spongy bone Compact bone Spongy bone Bone marrow sampies" Defatted with ether; Old bone d Fresh bone c Human bone C 2 3 4 6 7 A Ribs aged 1-3 months; 2 2 3 3 4 0 Blood grouping 3 3 3 3 4 B d 1 3 5 1 4 4 1 1 2 1 2 1 Unident.
Murphy. New York, Springer-Verlag, 1969 Forensic Soil Characterization 33 115. Stalfelt, M. : Stalfelt's Plant Ecology. (trans. by M. S. Jarvis and P. G. Jarvis). New York, Wiley,1972 116. , and Barker, S. : Polysaccharides of Microorganisms. Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1960 117. Gupta, U. : Carbohydrates. In Soil Biochemistry, Vol. 1, ed. A. D. McLaren and G. H. Peterson. New York, Dekker, 1967 118. , Ref. 113 119. Swain, F. , and Rogers, M. : Stratigraphic Distribution of Carbohydrate Residues in Middle Devonian Onondaga of Pennsylvania and Western New York.
The subject of soil humus has been reviewed by Hurst and Burges 150, Flaig 151, and by Schnitzer and Khan 152. The subject is complex, and many questions pertaining to the chemistry of humic materials are as yet unanswered. One aproach that appears promising, however, is the analysis of reductive degradation products of humus. The degradation of humic acids with sodium amalgam gives mixtures of phenols and phenolic acid monomers which can be separated by thin-Iayer chromatography. Humic acids of different origins have been reported to give different distribution patterns 153-155.
Forensic Science Progress by John I. Thornton, D. Crim (auth.), Prof. Dr. A. Maehly, Prof. Dr. R. L. Williams (eds.)