By Tracy Irons-Georges
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Extra info for Encyclopedia of flight E
On the commercial side of the industry, the engineering of new and better transports and aircraft destined for the air carrier markets stopped in favor of building on existing concepts to build bigger aircraft with bigger engines. Airspeed, comfort, and passenger loading ceased to be major requirements and took a back seat to economically viable air transport. Research and Development There are three significant eras in the expansion of the aerospace industry. These coincide with technology improvements as well as political changes that affected the industry.
To improve performance at high angles of attack by keeping the boundary layer attached to the airfoil upper surface, an aircraft designer may choose to cause the boundary layer to transition from laminar to turbulent at some point on the airfoil. This may be achieved using small protuberances attached to the airfoil’s surface. Ultra Low-Speed Flight Efficient flight at very low speeds, such as those of slowmoving birds and insects, presents unique complications. 20 Typical airfoil shapes do not generate much lift at these low airspeeds.
A laminar boundary layer is composed of air moving in orderly lines. A turbulent boundary layer has air moving close to the airfoil surface in swirling motions. A laminar boundary layer has far lower skin friction drag than the turbulent boundary layer; however, it is also more prone to separate from the airfoil surface. Thus, most airfoils have an initially laminar boundary layer that flows from the front of the airfoil back along the surface. At some point, the boundary layer transitions from laminar to turbulent and is typically turbulent from this point to the trailing edge of the airfoil.
Encyclopedia of flight E by Tracy Irons-Georges