By Glenn O. Mallory, Juan B. Hajdu
The time period «electroless plating» describes the tools of depositing metals and alloys
by technique of electrochemical reactions. even though, chemical plating is the more
accurate time period that may be used to indicate the different technique of steel deposition
without the appliance of electrical present from an exterior resource.
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Extra info for Electroless Plating Fundamentals & Applications
13. K. Lang, 56(6), 347 (1965). 14. E. Tsupak, Kandidatskaya Dissertatsiya, Moscow (1969). 15. A. Prokopchik, I. Valsyunene, P. Butkyavichyus and D. , 6,517 (1970). 16. K. Gorbunova, M. lvanov and V. Moiseev, J. Electrochem. , 120, 613 (1973). 56 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. ELECTROLESS PLATING G. Mallory, Plating, 58,319 (1971). M. Lelental, J. Electrochem. ,122,436 (1975). L. S. patent 2,430,581 (1947). J. Levy, J. Electrochem. , (1), 38 (1863). J. Dini and P. Coronado, Plating, 54,385 (1967).
PO--EIlect of temperature on plating rate. Equation 98 yields an expression for the rate constant K: K=Aexp - 1991 (:T) Here A is called the pre-exponential or frequency factor. According to this equation, the reacting molecules or ions must acquire a certain critical energy E, before they can react. The term exp(-E,/RT) is the Boltzmann factor, which denotes the fraction of the reacting species that have managed to attain activation energy E. The activation energy can be considered as a potential energy barrier that the reactants must climb before they can react.
The composition of Ni-P deposits can be altered slightly by merely raising (decrease P) or lowering (increase P) the temperature of hypophosphite-reduced nickel plating solutions. The amine borane reducing agents are more temperature sensitive and will hydrolyze excessively at high temperatures, causing wasteful side reactions. In this chapter we have discussed, in some detail, the chemistry of the principal components of electroless nickel plating solutions. Each component was shown to have a unique effect on the course of the deposition reaction.
Electroless Plating Fundamentals & Applications by Glenn O. Mallory, Juan B. Hajdu