By Thomas Heinzeller, James H. Nebelsick
On account that 1972, scientists from world wide engaged on basic questions of echinoderm biology and palaeontology have conferred every 3 years to alternate present perspectives and effects. The eleventh overseas Echinoderm convention held on the collage of Munich, Germany, from 6-10 October 2003,continued this practice. This quantity contains ninety five submitted papers and ninety six abstracts protecting a large spectrum from leading edge pupil contributions to the teachings learnt from skilled experts. The content material of the contributions levels from unique study effects to the latest synopses relating various topics, including visible sensing, larval cloning, mutable collagenous tissues, sea urchin aqua-culture, deuterostome phylogeny, palaeobiology and taphonomy.
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Extra info for Echinoderms: Munchen Proceedings of the 11th International Echinoderm Conference, 6-10 October 2003, Munich, Germany
R. McEdward (ed), Ecology of Marine Invertebrate Larvae: 279–322. CRC Press, Boca Raton. Mortensen, T. 1921. Studies of the development and larval forms of echinoderms. C. Gad. Copenhagen. H. & Shyamasundari, K. 1993. A rare condition of budding in bipinnaria larva (Asteroidea). Current Science 65(10): 792–793. S. 1964. Origin and dispersal of invertebrate larvae in the north Atlantic. Am. Zool. 4: 299–300. M. M. 1934. Observations on the bipinnaria of the asteroid genus Luidia. J. Daniel (ed), James Johnstone Memorial Volume: 35–61.
The development of new larvae from larval tissue occurs in 2 genera of ophiuroids and at least 6 genera of asteroids, as well as in other unidentified, field-collected larvae from these two classes. Further, asexual reproduction has recently been described by Eaves and Palmer (2003) for cultured larvae of echinoids and holothuroids. The process of larval cloning requires that existing differentiated cells change their developmental course to form essentially de novo a complete individual independent of the “parent” larva.
Although further observations are needed, the similarity of this distal bulb to the head of an early cystidean larva is compelling. In comatulid crinoids, even if the pentacrinoid is consider to be a juvenile, the stalk of the pentacrinoid can be argued to be larval tissue (Balser 2001). Regeneration of a new juvenile from the pentacrinoid stalk is perhaps analogous to regeneration of a new larva and juvenile from the larval arms in ophiuroids. If cloning in crinoids can be demonstrated, then the possibility that cloning (at least in some stage of the life history) is a defining characteristic of the phylum Echinodermata becomes interestingly plausible.
Echinoderms: Munchen Proceedings of the 11th International Echinoderm Conference, 6-10 October 2003, Munich, Germany by Thomas Heinzeller, James H. Nebelsick