By Age Mariussen, Aris Kaloudis, Elias Carayannis
The main message of this publication is that heterogeneity might be visible as an intrinsic and crucial portion of wisdom structures. The authors handle the concept that of heterogeneity in a multi-disciplinary style, together with views from evolutionary economics and innovation process reports, and relate this method of latest theories in a vast variety of fields. This ebook postulates that one method of this kind of re-conceptualization is what we name the 'Mode three' process along with 'Innovation Networks' and 'Knowledge Clusters' for wisdom production, diffusion and use. this can be a multi-layered, multi-modal, multi-nodal and multi-lateral approach, encompassing complementary and together reinforcing innovation networks and data clusters which include human and highbrow capital, formed via social capital and underpinned via monetary capital. "Diversity within the wisdom economic climate and Society" will attract lecturers and researchers of innovation and technological know-how, wisdom administration and economics.
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Additional resources for Diversity in the Knowledge Economy and Society: Heterogeneity, Innovation and Entrepreneurship (The Gwu Nifu Step Series on Science, Innovation, Technology and Entrepreneurship)
Smith saw competition as a rivalry between independent and heterogeneous economic agents, all pursing their own self-interest, but resulting in the common good of society as a whole as if they were guided by the invisible hand. He, together with the other classical economists, also saw the important role that this dynamism plays within the circular ﬂow and in the generation of a physical real surplus that promotes consumption, growth and international trade. The development of the classical theory of value and distribution is an important episode in the history of economic thought that shows how theory can avoid the kind of rigid behavioural assumptions that conceal the behavioural heterogeneity in the economy (see Löwe, 1965).
Furthermore, transposing the biological idea of commensalisms and competition to the socioeconomic scene, one has to explain the role of institutions that are very diﬀerent from natural environment. Markets – the institution for competition and the division of labour – are usually heavily regulated, politically and through legal measures. Without laws, rules, supervision by authorities, political and military power, markets will cease to exist. All these ‘artiﬁcial’ systems and institutions are absent in nature.
If there is any conclusion to this story, it is that behavioural heterogeneity and technological diversity are important issues of economic theory that remain part of the current debate. The following section provides the background for subsequent episodes in the history of economic thought, by focusing on one of the overarching issues underlying behavioural heterogeneity and technological diversity. THE DIVISION OF LABOUR AND HETEROGENEITY The classical economists were concerned with the growing heterogeneity and diversity of knowledge.
Diversity in the Knowledge Economy and Society: Heterogeneity, Innovation and Entrepreneurship (The Gwu Nifu Step Series on Science, Innovation, Technology and Entrepreneurship) by Age Mariussen, Aris Kaloudis, Elias Carayannis