By W.D. Newmark
Tanzania is among the such a lot biologically different countries on the earth. touring from west to east throughout Tanzania, one encounters an enormous array of ecosystems and species. starting at Lakes Victoria, Tanganyika, and Nyasa that shape a lot of the western boundary of Tanzania, one unearths the main different and a few of the main surprising concentrations of endemic fish in any of the world's lakes. relocating additional inland from the lakes, one meets the woodlands and plains of Serengeti, Ngorongoro, Tarangire, and Lake Manyara. The assemblages and activities of enormous mammals in those secure components are unheard of world wide. touring but additional to the east, one involves Mount Kilimanjaro, the top mountain in Africa. Mount Kilimanjaro is of enough peak not to in basic terms comprise seven significant plants zones, but in addition keep everlasting glaciers. eventually, almost immediately sooner than arriving on the Indian Ocean, one encounters the jap Arc Mountains, a sequence of remoted and geologically historic mountains, which because of their peak and proximity to the Indian Ocean intercept enough precipitation to aid, in lots of parts, wet tropical wooded area. The jap Arc Mountains are one of the richest websites biologically in all of Africa and harbor surprisingly excessive concentrations of endemic species - species whose geographic distribution are limited to those mountains. regrettably, a lot of Tanzania's biodiversity is threatened through habitat alteration, destruction, and exploitation. The jap Arc forests face essentially the most critical threats to any of Tanzania's biologically certain sites.
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Extra resources for Conserving Biodiversity in East African Forests: A Study of the Eastern Arc Mountains
Currently, average population density in the West Usambara is approximately 198 people per square kilometer (Feierman 1993), and many areas have densities greater than 400 people per square kilometer (Flueret 1979a; Kerkhof 1990). In comparison, the average population density for Tanzania as a whole is 25 people per square kilometer. Very similar patterns of high population growth have occurred in the Uluguru Mountains. D. Newmark 1931 and 1978, the population here more than doubled from 155,000 to 337,000 (Maack 1996).
Nearly 90 % of Tanzania's population are subsistence farmers and the demand for arable lands is extremely high (Yeager 1989). 9). Over the last century, there has been a net in-migration of people to most of the Eastern Arc Mountains from lowland and agriculturally marginal lands. The impact of this in-migration can be seen most vividly in the West Usambara and Uluguru Mountains. The population in the West Usambara Mountains increased 23-fold from approximately 15,000 in 1900 (Heijnen 1974) to more than 357,000 in 1988 (Iversen 1991b).
5 mm, which is the expected "normal" soil loss over a 25-50 year period (Temple and Rapp 1972). With the expansion of small-scale agriculture in the Eastern Arc Mountains, the frequency of man-made fires has also increased. In 1998, over 600 ha of lowland forest in the East Usambara Mountains burned during the dry season as a result of fires spreading from fields into the adjacent forest. The incidence of fire will almost certainly increase in the future as human populations in the Eastern Arc Mountains grow.
Conserving Biodiversity in East African Forests: A Study of the Eastern Arc Mountains by W.D. Newmark