By Masashi Kasaki, Hiroshi Ishiguro, Minoru Asada, Mariko Osaka, Takashi Fujikado
Cognitive Neuroscience Robotics is the 1st introductory e-book in this new interdisciplinary sector. This ebook includes volumes, the 1st of which, Synthetic methods to Human Understanding, advances human knowing from a robotics or engineering viewpoint. the second one, Analytic techniques to Human Understanding, addresses similar matters in cognitive technology and neuroscience. those volumes are meant to enrich one another with a purpose to extra comprehensively examine human cognitive capabilities, to strengthen human-friendly info and robotic know-how (IRT) platforms, and to appreciate what sort of beings we people are.
Volume B describes to what volume cognitive technological know-how and neuroscience have published the underlying mechanism of human cognition, and investigates how improvement of neural engineering and advances in different disciplines could lead on to deep realizing of human cognition.
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Extra resources for Cognitive Neuroscience Robotics B: Analytic Approaches to Human Understanding
Two main roles of emotion are distinguished: intra-individual (intra-personal) roles and inter-individual (inter-personal or social) roles. Emotion is related to primary drives that arise from innate needs, and hence have intra-individual roles. In addition, an emotional output of a person may influence the other’s emotion and behavior, and hence emotion has inter-individual roles. 1 Introduction Emotions have impacts on a variety of behaviors in animals and human. But they are not easy to define, and there exist multiple definitions of emotions.
Monkeys fear a lunging snake and show stereotypic aversive behaviors, such as escaping and shouting. Some humans show similar reactions to fearful entities; their reactions resemble primate’s immediate reactions to the threat. But when they find out that only leaves and twigs are rustling, their fear reactions are reduced and adjusted through the “high road” pathway. The dual pathways for emotional processing enable animals and humans to respond rapidly to very 28 Y. Yasoshima threatening stimuli and to reduce unnecessary fear responses to non-harmful stimuli.
G. Bunge et al. 2001; D’Esposito et al. 1995) have revealed that the brain areas responsible for the functions of the central executive are the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). The DLPFC is responsible for control attention in the dual task performance, and the ACC is involved in conflict monitoring and response inhibition. Osaka et al. (2004) examine focused attention in the performance of the reading span test with fMRI, and find that the left DLPFC, the ACC, and the left superior parietal lobule (SPL) are activated.
Cognitive Neuroscience Robotics B: Analytic Approaches to Human Understanding by Masashi Kasaki, Hiroshi Ishiguro, Minoru Asada, Mariko Osaka, Takashi Fujikado