By D. Merrick (auth.)
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46 Coal Combustion and Conversion Technology Subsequent processing would then be required to remove the sulphur dioxide from the combustion gases although the gas volume involved is comparatively small. Reduction Calcium sulphate can be reconverted to calcium carbonate (which may calcine to calcium oxide) using carbon monoxide. 13) The carbon monoxide required has to be generated externally by a gasification process and the operating conditions have to be chosen carefully to avoid an undesirable mixture of products (for example, the conversion of CaS04 to CaC0 3 and CaO can be hindered by the formation of CaS).
This process was first practised commercially by Archibald Cochrane, Earl of Dundonald, from 1781 onwards. The possibility of making gas from coal by carbonisation was, however, demonstrated and its advantages for illumination quickly appreciated. The manufacture of gas from coal was pioneered by William Murdoch who, from 1792, installed gas lighting in a number of factories . The first commercial gas company was founded by Friedrich Albert Winsor in 1812 to supply gas to London. By the 1820s, gas lighting was available in a number of major cities in Europe and the United States and the industry spread rapidly throughout the remainder of the century.
In order for substitution to be effective, therefore, an associated change in oil-refining practice is required . At present, most of the refineries outside the United States are of the simple 'hydroskimming' type. 9. 9) . Substitution of coal for fuel oil in bulk combustion markets will therefore require the widespread adoption of the advanced refining techniques already being used in the United States , leading to more light products and less fuel oil being produced from the same amount of crude oil.
Coal Combustion and Conversion Technology by D. Merrick (auth.)