This e-book provides actual realizing, modeling and simulation, on-chip characterization, structure suggestions, and layout ideas which are powerful to reinforce the reliability of assorted circuit devices. The authors offer readers with ideas for cutting-edge and destiny applied sciences, starting from expertise modeling, fault detection and research, circuit hardening, and reliability administration.
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Extra resources for Circuit Design for Reliability
In this case we can write, without loss of generality, that s D nT, where n is a positive integer (1, 2, 3, : : : ). 4) are equivalent to their time averages <1/£c (t)> and <1/£e (t)>. 8) 3 Charge Trapping Phenomena in MOSFETS: From Noise to Bias. . Noise PSD Fig. 7 Noise Power Spectral Density as a function of “eq . 7 depicts the behavior of noise power as a function of “eq . 11) This takes us to the conclusion that making a RTN signal cyclo-stationary leads to a Lorentzian spectrum with corner frequency equal to the sum of the inverse time average values of the capture and emission times.
If the probability of a trap to switch state during one period T of the cyclostationary excitation signal is very small, a simplification may be done in the calculation of the autocorrelation. This case corresponds to the limit where c (t) and e (t) are much larger than the period T, leading to small transition probabilities T/ c (t) and T/ e (t). In this case we can write, without loss of generality, that s D nT, where n is a positive integer (1, 2, 3, : : : ). 4) are equivalent to their time averages <1/£c (t)> and <1/£e (t)>.
Note, that the effect of modulation for a signal modulated by a square wave with 50 % duty cycle is a reduction of noise power (in baseband) by a factor of four. sw t C : : : 2 3 5 In frequency domain this corresponds to a convolution of the noise PSD with a spectrum with delta functions at dc, ¨sw , 3¨sw , 5¨sw , and so forth. The dc-term determines the resulting noise power in baseband, which is (1/2)2 or 6 dB, if compared to the original noise power. However, the measurements results did show a much larger noise reduction.
Circuit Design for Reliability