By Brigitte Voit, Rainer Haag, Dietmar Appelhans, Petra B. Welzel
This reference/text addresses suggestions and artificial recommendations for the training of polymers for state of the art use in biomedicine, artificial biology, and bionanotechnology.
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Extra info for Bio- and multifunctional polymer architectures : preparation, analytical methods and applications
25); (iii) transfer of the reactive species, derived from the initiator, to the polymer chain end; or (iv) activation of the polymer chain end by transferring the catalyst to it. This concept has been further transferred even to the synthesis of conjugated polymers where high control of the structure is essential for high performance in optoelectronic applications. This development is governed by the discovery of the Yokozawa  and McCullough  groups. They found that the Kumada polycondensation into regioregular poly(3‐alkylthiophenes) follows the chain growth but not the step growth mechanism, as it was believed for years.
The main advantage of the use of “single‐site” transition metal alkylidenes in ROMP is the “living” character, which allows high control over molar mass, leads to narrow dispersity, and offers the chance for block copolymer formation of olefinic, even functional monomers (Fig. 24) otherwise not polymerizable by other methods. 5 Chain Growth Condensation Polymerization As outlined previously, exciting progress with regard to control of structure and molar mass was achieved for polymers, which can be prepared by chain growth polymerizations, like ionic polymerization, NMRP, ATRP, RAFT, and ROMP techniques, applicable for olefins or some other monomers.
25 Mechanism of the controlled polycondensation in a biphasic system. Source: Yokozawa and Suzuki . Reproduced with permission from American Chemical Society. However, in recent years, polycondensation reactions have been devel oped, which proceed according to a chain growth mechanism and allow control over molar mass and chain end providing the chance for the prepa ration of block copolymers and complex architectures . 25); (iii) transfer of the reactive species, derived from the initiator, to the polymer chain end; or (iv) activation of the polymer chain end by transferring the catalyst to it.
Bio- and multifunctional polymer architectures : preparation, analytical methods and applications by Brigitte Voit, Rainer Haag, Dietmar Appelhans, Petra B. Welzel