By Robert M. Berne MD, Bruce A. Stanton PhD
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Additional info for Berne and Levy Physiology: with STUDENT CONSULT Online Access, 6e
As illustrated in Figure 1-10, the magnitude of the osmotic pressure generated by a solution of protein does not conform to van't Hoff's law. The cause of this anomalous relationship between protein concentration and osmotic pressure is not completely understood but appears to be related to the size and shape of the protein molecule. For example, the correlation to van't Hoff's law is more precise with small, globular proteins than with larger protein molecules. The oncotic pressure exerted by proteins in human plasma has a normal value of approximately 26 to 28 mm Hg.
The protein is covalently attached to a lipid molecule, which is then embedded in one leaflet of the bilayer. The glycolipid GPI anchors proteins to the outer leaflet of the membrane. , farnesyl or geranylgeranyl). Peripheral proteins may associate with the polar head groups of the membrane lipids but more commonly bind to integral or lipid-anchored proteins. Peripheral proteins are easily removed from the membrane, whereas integral and lipid-anchored proteins require the use of detergents to isolate them from the membrane.
The electrochemical gradient for any molecule (Δμx) is calculated as where R = gas constant T = temperature in degrees Kelvin ln = natural logarithm 39 / 1341 Berne and Levy Physiology, 6th Edition 40 / 1341 [X]i = concentration of X inside the cell [X]o = concentration of X outside the cell zx = valence of charged molecules F = Faraday constant Vm = membrane potential page 13 page 14 Figure 1-7 Electrochemical gradients and cellular transport of molecules. A, Because glucose is uncharged, the electrochemical gradient is determined solely by the concentration gradient for glucose across the cell membrane.
Berne and Levy Physiology: with STUDENT CONSULT Online Access, 6e by Robert M. Berne MD, Bruce A. Stanton PhD