By Klaas van't Riet
According to a graduate path in biochemical engineering, offers the elemental wisdom wanted for the effective layout of bioreactors and the correct rules and information for sensible procedure engineering, with an emphasis on enzyme reactors and aerated reactors for microorganisms. contains workouts,
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In some applications strength must be at a practical m i n i m u m otherwise it militates against easy forming. Material for these purposes must often be purchased in versions which have been developed especially to maximize formability. This may involve controlled anisotropy (as in extra-deepdrawing quality steel or low-earing aluminium) or low levels of second-phase particles (as in steel strip for bending). There is frequently also a need for controlled surface finishes. Machinability Machining becomes more difficult as strength increases.
Efforts are now being made to develop predictive computer p r o g r a m s for specific materials, so that the behaviour of a material with a given 36 Establishment of service requirements and failure analysis c o m b i n a t i o n of conditions can be assessed. Such a computer program may be designed to display the behaviour in terms of the anode and cathode polarization curves (see C h a p t e r 11) if this is preferred, from which the corrosion current, if any, can be predicted. Such programs are built up on a theoretical framework with data supplied from corrosion tests and from plant data.
Comparison of typical basis metal and alloy costs (£/tonne, 1987) Mild steel 9 % Nickel steel Nickel C o p p e r wire b a r s B r a s s b a r (65/35) Zinc 210 600 2470 930 820 530 quantities of a readily oxidizable element, expensive melting procedures to avoid losses on melting may be required. 3). TABLE 3 . 3 . Typical aluminium alloy costs (£/tonne, 1987) 5083 A l - 4 . 5 M g 2024 A l - 4 . 5 C u - l . 5 M g 7075 A l - 5 Z n - 3 C u - 1 . 5 M g 1845 2375 2420 It is n o t possible here to account for the variations in cost in terms of the individual alloying e l e m e n t s .
Basic Bioreactor Design by Klaas van't Riet