By Gregory K. McMillan
This best-selling booklet offers a transparent, concise, and entire view of ways to pick, set up, and retain electrodes, keep watch over valves, and regulate thoughts for pH functions severe for product and water caliber within the procedure undefined. The e-book covers each element of method layout together with the blending and reagent piping requisites which are very important for a winning application.
The crucial innovations are summarized as key insights and the simplest practices are provided as ideas of thumb during the e-book. The rising power of dynamic on-line pH estimators is explored to make present pH measurements speedier and extra trustworthy. the most recent advancements in complex batch keep an eye on, adaptive keep watch over, linear reagent call for keep watch over, and version predictive regulate are offered to lessen reagent intake and variability.
Этот бестселлер обеспечивает четкое, краткое, и полное представление о том, как выбрать, установить и поддерживать электроды, регулирующие клапаны и стратегию борьбы с измерением рН, решающее значение для качества продукта и воды в обрабатывающей промышленности. Книга охватывает все аспекты проектирования систем, в том числе и требования смешивания реагентов трубопроводов, которые важны для успешного применения. Важнейшие концепции можно резюмировать ключевые идеями и лучшими практиками, представленных в виде эмпирических правил на протяжении всей книги. Возникающие возможности динамического измерения рН изучены, чтобы сделать существующие измерения рН более быстрыми и надежными. Последние события в расширенный контроля, адаптивного управления, линейное управление подачи реагента и модели интеллектуального управления представлены для уменьшения расхода реагентов и изменчивости.
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Extra resources for Advanced pH Measurement and Control
8 for a more detailed discussion on the effec t of ion concentrations on activity coefficients. The polynomial equation for acid and sod ium ion error at th e end of the subroutine should be replaced with one that fits the data from the glass manufacturer. llgth. 'Ss contro l engineer because online charge balance models combined w ith Coriolis mass flow measurements of infl ue nt and reagent flows can provide online fast and reliabl e pH estima tors per Chapter 8. The pKa in these models closest to Copyrighted material 52 Chapter 2: The Chemislry the p H opera ting poin t can be manipulat ed on line by a model pred ictive co ntroller to match plant d ata.
The activity of an ion also d epends on the d ielectric cons tan t and temperature of the solvent and the concen tration of the other ions in the so lu tion. Table 2-2a lists the activity coefficients for some common ions in water for d ifferent ionic strengths. 1. The ionic strength can then be substitu ted into Eq uation 2-2e to estima te its effect on the activity coefficien t of the hyd rogen (hydronium) ion. The hydrogen ion is less affected than other ions because it is more mobile. Mos t effl uen t streams in waste treatment are d ilute enough that the activity coefficient for hyd rogen can be considered equal to one.
2-3. Free Dissociation An acid is a molecule that yields a hydrogen ion when it d issociates (breaks apart into its co mponent ions) as shown in Equation 2-3a and a base is a molecule that yield s a h yd roxyl ion w hen it dissociates as shown in Equation 2-3h. Water acts as both an acid and a base because it yield s both a hydrogen ion and hydroxyl ion upon d issociation as shown in Eq ua tion 2-3c. Neu tralization is the association of the hydrogen and hyd roxyl ions to form water; it is d esignated by the reverse arrow in Equation 2-3c.
Advanced pH Measurement and Control by Gregory K. McMillan