By Stephen J. Payne, Andrew Howes
This lecture describes a theoretical framework for the behavioural sciences that holds excessive promise for theory-driven study and layout in Human-Computer interplay. The framework is designed to take on the adaptive, ecological, and bounded nature of human behaviour. it truly is designed to assist scientists and practitioners cause approximately why humans decide to behave as they do and to give an explanation for which techniques humans select according to software, ecology, and cognitive info processing mechanisms. A key proposal is that folks decide on ideas with a purpose to maximise software given constraints. The framework is illustrated with a couple of examples together with pointing, multitasking, skim-reading, on-line buying, sign Detection concept and prognosis, and the effect of attractiveness on buying judgements. Importantly, those examples span from perceptual/motor coordination, via cognition to social interplay. ultimately, the lecture discusses the tough concept that humans search to discover optimum concepts and in addition discusses the results for behavioral research in HCI. desk of Contents: creation: A Framework for Cognitive technology study on HCI / historical past / sign Detection idea and Collaborative analysis / Discretionary activity Interleaving / move making plans / Multimodal interplay and textual content access / E-commerce / shopping a number of records and read interpreting / Adaptively allotting Cognition / E-commerce suggestions / dialogue
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Extra info for Adaptive Interaction: A Utility Maximization Approach to Understanding Human Interaction with Technology
2008; Roberts & Sherratt, 1998a; Harris & Wolpert, 2006). The first question concerns where people aim. It might seem obvious that they should aim at the centre of a target, but there is evidence that this is not the case. The second question concerns how long is taken to make the movement to the target. It is believed that people will adjust the time taken to make the movement so as to trade speed for accuracy. We deal with each of these questions in-turn. 1 WHERE TO AIM? To predict where a person will aim we must first understand how the selection of a button is a function of intrinsic variability in human movement.
In this section we will review some of this HCI research on multitasking, focussing on our own theoretical contribution (especially S. J. , 2007) and its relation to the Adaptive Interaction framework, as well as some later work which addresses related issues. This work, on “Discretionary task interleaving” is closely related to the work on skim reading, reviewed below, in that it uses our general framework, and aspects of foraging theory in particular to explore the utility space of decisions concerning what to work on when, and the strategies that multitaskers may use to maximize utility by switching among tasks.
Smith & Blankenship (1991)). Multitaskers must somehow manage the problem of time allocation according to the various utilities of tasks, while being sensitive to the effects of their own cognitive constraints. , 1995). Analysis of scheduling considers various aspects of the utility of task completion, such as the importance of deadlines and lateness or “tardiness” as well as aspects of task dependencies, etc. The scheduling rules considered in most depth by Moray and colleagues assume that tasks have fixed durations and deadlines and utilities that depend on their relative priority, with penalties if the deadline or due date is missed.
Adaptive Interaction: A Utility Maximization Approach to Understanding Human Interaction with Technology by Stephen J. Payne, Andrew Howes