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By Barnette D. W.

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However, it was shown to cause mutations in some cultured mouse cells (2,23). In summary, the data regarding the mutagenicity of rotenone are inconclusive (4). Carcinogenic effects Studies in rats and hamsters have provided limited evidence for carcinogenic activity of rotenone.

Studies in rats have shown that cypermethrin is rapidly metabolized by hydroxylation and cleavage, with over 99% being eliminated within hours. The remaining 1% becomes stored in body fat. 4 days for the trans-isomer (2). Ecological effects Effects on birds Cypermethrin is practically nontoxic to birds. Its acute oral LD50 in mallard ducks is greater than 4640 mg/kg (8). The dietary LC50 in mallards and bobwhite quail is greater than 20,000 ppm (8). No adverse reproductive effects occurred in mallards or bobwhite quail given 50 ppm, the highest dose tested (8).

Dried spray residues are not expected to pose a significant threat to bees (5). Environmental fate Breakdown in soil and groundwater Under field conditions, esfenvalerate is moderately persistent with a half-life ranging from about 15 days to 3 months, depending on soil type (25). In a soil laboratory study, 17% of the applied chemical was lost in 90 days. Esfenvalerate and its breakdown products are relatively immobile in soil and thus pose little risk to groundwater (11). The compound’s ability to bind to soil increases with increasing organic matter.

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3 - Trees in polyhedral maps by Barnette D. W.

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